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Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

1 War Introduction This I feel. A curse. Mother said it more than once, ‘You could be killed over there, Oliver,’ as if I were incompetent, not man enough to take care of myself; I hated her motherlove arrogance. Did I listen? Did it make sense? Mothers are cowards. Curses passed down the vaginal passageways deep to man. True as true can be. I told her that I didn’t really want to go back to Yale, I was an adventurer, just like her and went to Vietnam instead. But I wonder what she’ll say when she finds out about this. My limbs stiffening, waiting in this groin

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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Genre, history, national cinema
Author: Jonathan Rayner

This book undertakes a consideration of the depiction of naval warfare within British and American cinema. The films (ranging from examples from the interwar period, the Second World War, the Cold War and contemporary cinema) encompass all areas of naval operations in war, and highlight varying institutional and aesthetic responses to navies and the sea in popular culture. Examination of the films centres on their similarities to and differences from the conventions of the war genre as described in earlier analyses, and seeks to determine whether the distinctive characteristics of naval film narratives justify their categorisation as a separate genre or sub-genre in popular cinema. The explicit factual bases and drama-documentary style of many key naval films (such as In Which We Serve, They Were Expendable and Das Boot) also require a consideration of them as texts for popular historical transmission. Their frequent reinforcement of establishment views of the past, which derives from their conservative ideological position towards national and naval culture, makes these films key texts for the consideration of national cinemas as purveyors of contemporary history as popularly conceived by filmmakers and received by audiences.

Post-9/11 Horror and the Gothic Clash of Civilisations
Kevin J. Wetmore

Twentieth century cinema involving monster conflict featured solitary monsters in combat (Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man, for example). The writing of Anne Rice and the RPG Vampire: The Masquerade by White Wolf Games introduced the idea of Gothic communities and civilisations in conflict. It was not until after the terror attacks of 11 September that the idea of a clash of civilisations between supernatural societies fully emerged into the mainstream of popular culture. This essay explores the construction of a clash of civilisations between supernatural communities as a form of using the Gothic as a metaphor for contemporary terrorism in film and television series such as Underworld, Twilight, True Blood and The Vampire Diaries. Inevitably, it is the lycanthropes that are the disempowered and disenfranchised society and are alternately exploited by and rebel against the dominant vampire civilisation grown decadent and on the verge of collapse. Post-9/11 Gothic posits a world in which vampire society is the new normal, and werewolves represent a hidden danger within. Lycanthropes must be controlled, profiled and/or fought and defeated. Through close readings of the cinematic and televisual texts, I explore the vampire/werewolf clash as metaphor and metonym for the war on terror.

Gothic Studies
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Viv Gardner and Diane Atkinson

The Autobiography 199 Chapter 57 War I will pass on now to the first Sunday in August when I was on “danger-duty”1 in Leicester, ready to send another reminder to the Government that women still wanted to vote, when a telegram arrived from headquarters, to stop all activity. We knew then that England was in the war which had been brewing for some time on the Continent. Compared to the destruction of property men would now indulge in, to say nothing of their destruction of human life, the women’s militancy would be as futile as throwing a match into a roaring

in Kitty Marion
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Making sense of conflict
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

2 War narratives: making sense of conflict On 11 July 2018, an argument between then Italian Minister of Interiors, Matteo Salvini, and the former President of Italian NGO Emergency, Cecilia Strada, circulated through social media. Salvini suggested that the vast majority of migrants recently rescued in the Mediterranean were in fact people not entitled to protection, because they were not from countries at war. These are the nationalities of the immigrants who boarded the Italian Coast Guard vessel ‘Diciotti’, recovered by a previous vessel in Libyan waters

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Chiao-I Tseng

The recent uses of digital technology in war films have sparked a wave of discussions about new visual aesthetics in the genre. Drawing on the approach of film discourse analysis, this article critically examines recent claims about new visual grammar in the war film and investigates to what extent the insertion of different media channels has affected the persuasive function of the genre. Through a detailed analysis of Redacted (2007), which constitutes an extreme case of a fiction filmmaking use of a variety of digital channels, this article demonstrates that the multimedia format works within systems of classical film discourse while also generating new patterns of persuasion tied to new visual technology.

Film Studies
The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

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Chris Beasley and Heather Brook

4 War and order One of the most pervasive myths reiterated in Hollywood movies is the narrative of virtuous and hence legitimate order – the story of the good nation, the good society, and legitimate leadership and authority. Films which focus on order, on ‘us’, elicit a sense of identification with ‘home’, linking not only self and collective but also citizen and nation in positive, active constructions of security. This construction of security is found in a relatively limited array of genres. By contrast, those which concentrate on disorder, fear of them

in The cultural politics of contemporary Hollywood film
Guy Austin

Case studies: L’Arche du désert (Mohamed Chouikh, 1997), Rachida (Yamina Bachir Chouikh, 2002), Barakat! (Djamila Sahraoui, 2006) In Algeria the 1990s are known as ‘the black decade’, a period of widespread terror and trauma. Ostensibly this was a civil war, fought between the forces of the state and

in Algerian national cinema
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Scott Wilson

11 All is war Attack at dawn with sonic horns Quranic forms and phonic guns Sufi surfing on boards of steel Laser sim tars coded zikar Love and hate approach the state The statue of liberty falls prostrate ... Dream team salahuddin The citizens they build a mosque on ground zero (Fun’da’mental, ‘All is War’, 2006) 11 September 2001 The epoch in which America has been known as the Great Satan is more or less the same as the epoch of the naming of rogue states generally. Consolidated by the end of the cold war, that epoch has, according to Jacques Derrida, been

in Great Satan’s rage