participants are treated fairly and equally throughout
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By the end of this chapter you should be able to:
1. Explain why sound ethical procedures for the planning and conduct of
research are important
2. Understand key principles that govern the conduct of ethical research
3. Illuminate each principle with case examples relevant to
Following the end of World War Two, sixteen Nazi doctors were tried and
convicted of war crimes involving
means belonging to, for example ‘its wheels have fallen off’, whereas it’s means ‘it is’, for example ‘it’s raining and pouring’.
Lead is a verb meaning to lead someone or something, for example ‘to lead a nation towards economic collapse’, whereas led is the past tense of the same verb , for example ‘he led the nation into war’. Lead is also a noun, meaning the metal.
Lose means to have mislaid something, whereas loose means not tightly fixed.
Practice in UK English is a noun, for example ‘practice will improve your ability
an increased focus on impressive celebrations of such activities. World fairs and exhibitions, which occurred most regularly from the mid nineteenth century to the outbreak of the First World War, were significant, as they indicated the growing desire amongst large numbers of people to attend and appreciate the science and art of the day (Hudson, 1975 ). Around the globe, exhibitions began to emerge as symbols of the prestige of nation-states, ‘exercises in nationalist diplomacy’ anticipating a ‘techno-utopian’ and ‘uncontestable future’ (Dietz, 2005 : 910
general approach, the design of your study and the methods that you will use.
Consider the example from a student’s first attempt to frame her dissertation question and a couple of her sub-questions:
Main question: How do contemporary integration discourses construct Muslims, Britishness and their relations?
Sub-question 1: How do labels and narratives of radicalisation and community cohesion construct ideas of what it means to be British?
Sub-question 2: In what ways are Muslims constructed in relation to the War on Terror
from morality, which involves a judgement on the part of the individual as to what is the appropriate moral behaviour (Wiles, 2013 ). Whether ethics should be applied or a matter for philosophical debate has not always been agreed upon; however, in the twentieth century increased ethical debate around topics such as war, women’s rights, environmental and medical issues saw a resurgence of applied ethical thinking (Attfield, 2012 ), demanding ethical practice beyond consideration of ethical issues alone. Alongside this, increased research, particularly associated
We are accustomed perhaps to think of ‘objects’ as the hard and physical things in our world, such as a table, a hammer, a building, and the like. Mead uses the term in a broader sense to mean anything that can be referred to or designated – a chair, a house, a horse, a woman, a soldier, a friend, a university, a law, a war, a meeting, a debate, a ghost, a task, a problem, a vacuum, and abstract things such as liberty, charity, intelligence, and stupidity. In this legitimate sense of being anything that can be designated or referred to, objects may be material or
-Enlightenment world – which Foucault defines as the ‘power to take life or let live’ (Foucault, 1998:135). The king with his dazzling robes and jewels, would rule autocratically by legitimately waging war (1998:135). Such power acted as ‘a subtraction mechanism, a right to appropriate a portion of the wealth, a tax of products, goods and services … it culminated in the privilege to seize hold of life in order to suppress it’ (Foucault, 1998:136). Whether through bloody execution, or the taxation of the farmer’s turnips, deduction limited unacceptable actions through the fear of