'Terror' is a diffuse notion that takes no account of local particularities and 'war on terror' is a contradiction in terms. This book is based on the lectures that were given on the subject in Oxford in 2006. Amnesty has described 'war on terror' as a war on human rights. It is also a contest of narratives: stories that the protagonists tell about themselves, about their enemies, and about what is happening now. The book considers how the recent actions of the United States have stressed and stretched two areas of international law: the right of self-defence, and the rules of international humanitarian law. State terrorism, with a bit of careful spin, can be reclassified as counter-terrorism, in other words as inherently good in the same way that terrorism is inherently bad. The book engages with the politico-conceptual difficulties of distinguishing between war and terrorism. The interface and tensions between the human rights tradition and the Islamic tradition, particularly Islamic law, is discussed. The intensification of Western repression against Islamic thinkers or activists has at times been coupled with policies that seemed designed to change the religious trajectory of society. The sexualization of torture is only one way in which the 'war on terror' has delineated who is (and who is not) human. Religion, human rights, and trauma narratives are three other mechanisms for rationalizing suffering. The book also discusses the subject of censuring reckless killing of innocent civilians by the issue of fatwas by Muslim teachers.
the notion of terrorism are distortions that derive either from the dominant state-centred paradigm of international relations or from the theory of the just war which claims that combatants are legitimate targets while non-combatants are not.
The claim that terrorism involves intentional attacks upon the innocent raises a number of questions. I will discuss two. First, what is the relevant sense of ‘innocence’? As I will use it here, ‘innocent’ has two senses, one formal, the other substantive. In the formal sense, a person is innocent when he has done
The initial context for this essay included the war in Afghanistan (2001–), the war in Iraq (2003–) and terrorist attacks such as those of 11 September 2001, 11 March 2004, and 7 July 2005. These events have been discursively connected by talk about ‘international terrorism’ and ‘the war on terror’, a connection hotly contested ever since it surfaced in speeches by U.S. president George W. Bush (and members of his administration) following 11 September 2001. 1 I do not here intend to contribute to the multifaceted debate about the ‘war on terror’, though
Surveillance, collective punishment and the cutting edge of police power
Seven, Guildford Four held the judiciary to book’. 6
This chapter explores the ways in which new powers are reproducing racism in British policing. There will be further analysis of the development of the ‘all-out war on gangs and gang culture’ announced by David Cameron in 2011, and discussed in the previous chapter. I also detail the ways in which new technologies, surveillance and injunctions are used to criminalise Black communities and expand the use of prisons and other forms of punishment. We begin, however, by stepping back in time to explore the ideas
This article considers how the reburial and commemoration of the human remains of the
Republican defeated during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) is affected by the social,
scientific and political context in which the exhumations occur. Focusing on a particular
case in the southwestern region of Extremadura, it considers how civil society groups
administer reburial acts when a positive identification through DNA typing cannot be
attained. In so doing, the article examines how disparate desires and memories come
together in collective reburial of partially individuated human remains.
Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than
300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before
the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were
intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked
Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential
neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak
grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter
them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem
treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and
their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of
the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay
systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition,
collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that
impacted on the victims.
White feminism as war machine
On 21 January 2017 more than 5 million women and
people of other genders took to the streets in US cities.
It was the day after President Trump’s inauguration.
His candidacy for the presidency had put sexism and
sexual violence centre stage, prompting seventeen allegations of harassment and/or assault. These arose after
the leak of a 2005 recording in which Trump bragged
about being able to ‘do anything’ to women. ‘When
you’re a star’, he said, ‘they let you do it. You can do
anything. Grab ’em by the pussy.’
One of the
the arrival of the post-war years, superintendents, course
developers, and other key figures in the golf industry could mark out distance from their industry
forbears most of all by adopting highly potent synthetic pesticides.
At this point in time, as we shall see, these same stakeholders in
golf were entering a political landscape rife with critiques of
Modern warfare: golf in the early 1900s
In recounting golf’s
historical development, renowned golf architect Michael
Most of humanity shares two searing memories: the collapse of the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001; and a hooded man standing on a box with wires dangling from his outstretched hands. These images capture the painful truth that both sides in the so-called ‘war on terror’ have violated fundamental rules. But while non-state actors can violate international law, only states are able to change the law, making their breaches of greater potential consequence. In this chapter, I consider how the recent actions of the United States
… a nation that finds itself on the brink of an abyss will try
to save itself by any means. 1
Personal views and experience are influential factors
that influence key decision-makers’ thinking. 2 This chapter and the next consider what effect the experience of the
Second World War, and the factors that shaped that conflict, had on those making nuclear
deterrence policy in the early 1950s. In the context of the evolution of air warfare after
about 1915, it focuses on