The first twenty years (1377-97) of Richar II's reign was characterised by war and rebellion, show trials, scandalous royalty, horrible murders, attempts to solve the Irish question and the making of England's oldest alliance. This richly-documented period offers exceptional opportunities and challenges to students, and the editor has selected material from a wide range of sources: well-known English chronicles, foreign chronicles, and legal, administrative and financial records. This book describes the complex domestic and international situation which confronted the young king, and offers guidance on the strengths and weaknesses of the reign's leading chronicles. Students of Richard II's reign are blessed with numerous written sources. This reign saw the last great flowering of medieval chronicle-writing.
because the city of Genoa was in some measure a Roman port. For when the Romans
wished to send a navy into Africa or Spain they assembled at the port of Genoa.
For this reason the same Titus Livy, in his second part
where he discusses the Second Punic War between the Romans and the
Carthaginians, says this: in the 534th year from the founding of the
City , Publius Cornelius Scipio was at Marseilles with his ships
: ‘From which of these men is a woman giving off such a scent?’
And when he identified him, he said: ‘It offends me that you are called a
man, since I know that to be false by your scent’.
Finally, citizens ought not to be subject to wantonness, but
practised in virtuous and warlike deeds. For the art of war is learned better
through experience than through knowledge, better through habit than
on the Genoese in the War of Saint Sabas, fought in the Holy Land in
1256–58, the situation quickly improved for the Genoese after they
assisted Michael VIII Palaiologos to regain Constantinople from the French and
their Venetian allies, who had occupied it since the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
Michael's gratitude gave the Genoese a major advantage over the Venetians
in trade with Constantinople and into
city ( civitas ), but a town
( oppidum ).
For a town is a kind of fortified settlement ( castrum ), so-called
either from the opposition ( oppositio ) of its walls or from the wealth
( ops )—that is, the riches—which are stored there for
safekeeping in time of war.
On this subject Titus Livy says that a certain African named Mago suddenly
In the year of the Lord 1146 the Genoese armed twenty-six
galleys and many ships carrying [war] machines, with one hundred knights and
their warhorses. Then they went to Minorca and besieged it for twenty-two days.
But then as winter was arriving they returned to Genoa with many spoils. They
sailed around the entire island seizing lands, killing Saracens, and carrying
Ages went on. Royal letters of protection were a kind of ‘internal
passport’ or safe-conduct, guaranteeing that the bearer was a
reputable person on bona fide business. Typical recipients included
foreign merchants, soldiers en route to or from the wars and various
kinds of pilgrim and religious mendicant. Hermits, of course, fell into the
latter category. The patent rolls record the issuing of letters of
On Venus: Bede, Expositio Actuum apostolorum for
Acts 7.43, p. 36; Scarfe Beckett ( 2008 ), pp. 125–38. On Saturn: Landolfus Sagax, Historia
romana 1.1, p. 3. On Mercury: this probably refers to Cisalpine Gaul
(northern Italy), since classical texts regularly characterise Gauls as
Mercury-worshippers (e.g. Caesar, Gallic war 6
preached the faith of Christ to him, although he did not wish to listen to
But it happened that he got into a serious war with the Alamanni, and when
he was losing a battle he vowed a vow, saying, ‘God of my wife, help me
and I will worship you as God’. As soon as he had made this vow, he
regained his powers against the enemy and achieved victory, and so afterward he
The church of Santi Nazario e Celso is attested in a
document of 987, which describes it as ‘the basilica of Saint Nazarius
which was founded along the seashore in the place called Albaro known as
“to the holy pilgrims”’; Cartario genovese , p. 27.
The church was demolished for the construction of Corso Italia after World