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Stephen Penn

muttered about these words in the following way: ‘Since Christ’s apostles and disciples were persecuted many times in this world, how therefore do they have the peace of the Lord given to them?’ But they knew how there is a twofold peace corresponding to the twofold nature in man, namely, bodily and spiritual peace. Peace of the body is the quiet possession of a virtuous body, in the same way as kingdoms are said to have peace when neighbouring kingdoms bring war to an end. And that peace, although it is good, is nevertheless far inferior to the

in John Wyclif
Abstract only
Stephen Penn

September of the same year, the ongoing war with France, as Michael Wilks eloquently observed, briefly became a holy war. 48 Despenser’s crusade (usually known as the Norwich Crusade or the Despenser Crusade) was supported, and possibly even initiated by, Urban VI, who offered plenary remission to all who would agree to participate in the military effort. Plenary indulgences of this kind, which could be administered uniquely by the pope, offered remission of all temporal punishment for sins committed (and which had been absolved through the confessional), which meant

in John Wyclif
Abstract only
Alison I. Beach
,
Shannon M.T. Li
, and
Samuel S. Sutherland

of war to such a degree that because he was strong and very swift among men and distinguished in all military activity, Liutold was selected by King Henry IV to be among the twelve men whom he always kept with him as supporters and accomplices of his wicked deeds. Because of this, Liutold earned a privilege of liberty from this same king, both for himself and for all of his posterity. 3.4. In the early flower of youth, Theodoric indulged in enticements of the flesh to his heart’s desire. But when he was more mature, he restrained his spirit from this inclination

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany
Stephen Penn

[:9–22]). Proof of these words can be taken from the condition of the church, which is lamenting its own corruption. Hence, literally, it was ‘better’ with the Jews that ‘were slain’ than for those who lived in expectation caused by a ‘hunger’ so powerful that they ‘pined away’ (4[:9]). That is, they were forsaken in misery on account of the ‘want of fruits’ caused by war, so it is worse for the confessors in the peace of embitterment than it was for the martyrs that were killed earlier. This is because hunger for the word of God grows. ‘The hands of the pitiful women have

in John Wyclif
Stephen Penn

seized its own feathers, and thus they escaped danger whilst the owl remained featherless and even sadder than before. Hence, if a war should be waged against us, we should take back worldly goods from endowed clerics as though they were goods common to us and our kingdom, and thus defend the kingdom wisely with our own goods, as they greatly exceed our needs. Nobody should wonder why I speak so diffusely in this matter, relating things so specifically and in a way that is so sharply reproachful. Indeed, I am diffuse so that it becomes clear

in John Wyclif