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Remixed lives, reincarnated images and live- streamed co- presence
Sam Gregory

proliferating economy of war crimes imagery from Syria and Iraq. This footage is the dark analogue of witnessing as it is discussed in the literature –​there is an intention to turn from seeing to saying, but not in the service of justice. However, the curators at one remove take this material and recontextualise the act of seeing and saying in a human rights witnessing frame, calling for accountability and action on the part of their audiences. In a broader public context, the action of distant witnesses is frequently not to participate in active acts of remix and framing

in Image operations
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Iraq videos from YouTube to WikiLeaks
Christian Christensen

over 1 million times. That number has now increased to 5  million. The most popular unofficial video  –​showing US troops driving through the streets of Baghdad crashing into other vehicles –​increased in total number of viewings from 970,000 in 2007 to around 2.1 million in 2015. In the conclusion to the 2008 piece on videos from Iraq, I wrote the following: It is important to note that the majority of clips posted to YouTube do not show soldiers engaged in war crimes, violence or anti-​social behavior, but rather taking part in the mundane, day-​to-​day activities

in Image operations
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. Bass , Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals ( Princeton, NJ , 2000 ); Jon Elster , Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective ( Cambridge , 2004 ). 35 For examples of the literature

in International law in Europe, 700–1200
Displacement of people

community as a whole’: genocide, crimes against humanity (e.g., murder, enslavement, torture, apartheid, forced displacement of people), war crimes (e.g., hostage taking, unlawful confinement, intentionally attacking civilians, conscripting children, plundering), and the crime of aggression (e.g., annexation by force of another state’s territory). 131 By contrast, the arrest and surrender of domestic

in International law in Europe, 700–1200
Patricia Allmer

actions, having been reposted in late September as Abteilungsarzt of the 16 th SS Tank Batallion. Reder and his division surrendered to British forces near Klagenfurt in Austria in 1945. Reder was extradited to Italy in 1948 and tried for war crimes, and was convicted and imprisoned near Naples. In 1956 the Upper Austrian government intervened to grant Reder his Austrian citizenship (he’d become German in 1934), notoriously making him Austria’s last prisoner of war. He was released in January 1985 and transferred

in The traumatic surreal
Susie Protschky

G. Oostindie, De parels en de kroon; Het koningshuis en de koloniën (Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2006), pp. 100–1, 115–18, 130. 19 S. Scagliola, ‘Cleo's “unfinished business”: coming to terms with Dutch war crimes in Indonesia's war of independence’, in B. Luttikhuis and D. Moses (eds), Colonial Counterinsurgency and Mass Violence: The Dutch Empire in Indonesia (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 240–60; I. van Ooijen and I

in Photographic subjects
Drawings by Peruvian Shining Path war survivors
Anouk Guiné

survived a ‘genocidal massacre’ in June 1986.9 The assault took place at the offshore Callao jail near Lima, the rocky penal colony also known as El Frontón.10 The massacre was committed by the Peruvian army, which assassinated 122 of 160 inmates following their decision to mutiny. The survivors were tortured, maimed and transferred to the mainland Lima jail of Canto Grande, where they created the drawings and secretly hid them away for safe-keeping, never to exhibit them. This war crime was orchestrated during the first presidency (1985–90) of Alan García, leader of the

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Caroline Turner
Jen Webb

1990s the Tamil Tigers undertook assassinations, and launched many suicide bombings, including some by women suicide bombers, in the capital Colombo, in places such as transport hubs, public buildings and temples. A UN report published in 2011 said both sides in the conflict had committed war crimes against civilians.40 The legacy, in the words of Chandraguptha Thenuwara, was that ‘after 1983, what we Sri Lankans have gained was international contempt and hatred amongst us’.41 Despite the civil war raging for a number of decades in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese at least

in Art and human rights
The challenge of a globalising world
Caroline Turner
Jen Webb, accessed 17 October 2014. 109 This group included John Rabe, Minnie Vautrin, John Magee and Robert Wilson – the only surgeon left in the hospital (Lo, ‘Diaspora’, p. 35). 110 There are no accurate figures, because Japanese records were destroyed or kept secret. The Chinese government’s Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal (1947) claimed that 300,000 civilians had been massacred; the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in 1948 asserted 200,000 deaths; and scholars debate the numbers, with estimates ranging from 40,000 to over 300,000 killed. See Bob Wakabayashi (eds

in Art and human rights
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Dominic Johnson

evince and accept collective guilt, which similarly prevented individuals from admitting personal involvement in, and culpability for, the atrocities of the regime and the war. In the early post-war years, during and after the uncovering of the full extent of Nazi war crimes, he writes, Germans preferred ‘to claim for themselves the status of victims who, if not having been brutally coerced into compliance, had most definitely been skilfully manipulated by the [National Socialist] regime’ (Knischewski 2008: 104). He continues, They felt further victimized by the

in Unlimited action