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Zheng Yangwen

body of scholarship and Diana Lary has been at the forefront of war studies. Japan had prepared for its conquest of the Middle Kingdom and Christiane Reinhold has examined how Japan studied China in order to understand it. 38 Rana Mitter has undertaken exhaustive studies on the war and furnished us with comprehensive accounts. 39 Some have focused on the military aspect. 40 An increasing number of scholars have investigated Japanese war crimes. 41 With the rise of humanitarian studies, many have begun to examine human suffering during the war. 42 Foreigners who

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
Mark Edele

these statements. The penalties increased to 100,000–500,000 roubles (or the equivalent of one to three years’ salary), or forced labour or prison for up to five years, if the above offences took place while performing a public office or using mass media or while falsifying evidence. 17 In these cases, the perpetrators would also lose the right to perform their position or job for up to three years. On the face of it, the Memory Law seemed innocent. Who would deny war crimes judged at the Nuremberg trials? The devil was in the detail, in

in Debates on Stalinism
Abstract only
Nigel D. White

humanity, war crimes, as well as aggression), embodied in the idea of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and, arguably, practised in Libya in 2011. IGOs and the use of force The creation of the UN in 1945 was meant to signify the advent of a system of collective security. In theory, collective security involves the centralisation, at least partially, of the use of coercion and violence to combat aggressors and threats to the peace. 1 Under the UN Charter scheme the intention of the founding states was that the Security Council would hold that centralised power, shown

in The law of international organisations (third edition)