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Decolonisationand the Japanese emperor after 1945
Elise K. Tipton

circles arose over his possible abdication and trial as a war criminal. 27 While Hirohito himself offered to abdicate, many conservative Japanese leaders feared that abdicating would make Hirohito more vulnerable to being charged with war crimes. To prevent this, Japanese officials, supported by SCAP GHQ, made concerted efforts to turn him into a peace-loving emperor who had been forced to support war by the militarists. 28 The transformation into a ‘symbol emperor’ began with his appearance in civilian clothes, in contrast to all his wartime presentations in military

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Susie Protschky

G. Oostindie, De parels en de kroon; Het koningshuis en de koloniën (Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2006), pp. 100–1, 115–18, 130. 19 S. Scagliola, ‘Cleo's “unfinished business”: coming to terms with Dutch war crimes in Indonesia's war of independence’, in B. Luttikhuis and D. Moses (eds), Colonial Counterinsurgency and Mass Violence: The Dutch Empire in Indonesia (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 240–60; I. van Ooijen and I

in Photographic subjects
Mary Chamberlain

’. 98 Similarly, the Research and Documentation Center in Sarajevo was established to continue the work of the War Crimes Commission in documenting war crimes in Bosnia to preserve historical memory and dignify the victims of war crimes. Rwanda, too, is seeking its own Truth and Reconciliation process as a necessary step in healing the nation. All were or are engaged in reconstituting, even fixing, the

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
Matthew P. Fitzpatrick

December 1904, pp. 3376–8. 78 Sarkin, Germany’s Genocide of the Herero . 79 Jan-Bart Gewald, ‘Imperial Germany and the Herero of Southern Africa: Genocide and the Quest for Recompense’, in A. Jones (ed.), Genocide, War

in Crowns and colonies
Jaap de Moor

acquired a reputation for brutality and war crimes – were the final losers. They feared the consequences of their loyalty and expected the revenge of the new Indonesian polity. For the first time in their lives they refused to obey their officers. They finally resorted to mutiny and nationalism – not to pan-Indonesian nationalism, against which they had fought for so long, but to a regional form. They took

in Guardians of empire
D.N. Lammers

were inversely proportional to its short length. A Bar of Shadow recounted an odyssey of understanding which began in the Japanese prison camp where the protagonist’s life hung on Serjeant ‘Rottang’ Hara’s whim and ended several years later in the executioner’s cell where Hara awaited the hanging to which he had been sentenced by the War Crimes Tribunal. 13 The amazing vivacity of the

in Asia in Western fiction
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Empire and law, ‘Firmly united by the circle of the British diadem’
Dana Y. Rabin

: Lesbian, Gay and Transgender Legal Studies (London: Cassell, 1998 ). 43 Nicholas Rogers in his recent book Mayhem: Post-War Crime and Violence in Britain 1748–1753 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012 ) analyzes several case studies to highlight the anxieties and preoccupations of

in Britain and its internal others, 1750–1800
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The British in China and the aftermath of empire
Robert Bickers

work in South East Asia war crimes units. But for these men, and others established in their careers, restarting could prove difficult. The experience of the former chief inspector who initially started afresh as a petrol pump attendant was not an unusual one. A fifth of those released from internment had found their way to Australia by 1957, when at least a dozen were in Hong Kong. 31 Dick Foster-Hall was the London

in The break-up of Greater Britain
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Convict servitude and the reworking of the private sphere, c.1817–42
Kirsty Reid

liberties and freedom of speech, and coercive labour legislation. 1 Coincident with these shifts, a range of reforms began to curb the so-called ‘Bloody Code’. The continuing decline in rates of execution inevitably further heightened the state’s reliance upon transportation as one of the most significant forms of secondary punishment. This was extended by a post-warcrime wave’, a companion to the social

in Gender, crime and empire
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Western science or racist mythology?
Rosalind J. Harrison-Chirimuuta

, allocated substantial resources to develop these weapons. So important did they regard biological warfare that they gave Japanese scientists who had regularly sacrificed human prisoners during experiments immunity from prosecution for war crimes in exchange for the information so gathered. For two decades from the early 1950s more than 200 experiments were conducted in the United States alone. ‘Harmless

in Western medicine as contested knowledge