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Author: Katia Pizzi

This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of machine culture in Italian futurism after the First World War. The machine was a primary concern for the futuristi. As well as being a material tool in the factory it was a social and political agent, an aesthetic emblem, a metonymy of modernity and international circulation and a living symbol of past crafts and technologies. Exploring literature, the visual and performing arts, photography, music and film, the book uses the lens of European machine culture to elucidate the work of a broad set of artists and practitioners, including Censi, Depero, Marinetti, Munari and Prampolini. The machine emerges here as an archaeology of technology in modernity: the time machine of futurism.

Paul Greenhalgh

of architecture between 1880 and 1914. The School also transformed the shape of the house and can rightly be thought of as an important ingredient in the rise of international modernism in Europe. 40 Thus in 1893, the organisers of the Columbian had a great deal of acclaimed expertise to tap for the construction of their site. Daniel Burnham, a leading light in the Chicago school, was made chairman

in Ephemeral vistas
Rosemary O’Day

Database, the Foxe Project or the ODNB. There is a concern that the normal critical faculties of academics have been suspended when faced with glossy and well-organized databases of this kind: it is as well to remember that a database of any kind is only as good as the source materials upon which it draws, and the organization and accessibility of the data. -Isms New -isms became prominent from the 1950s onwards: modernism, postmodernism, deconstructionism, feminism and receptionism being five of the most important for our subject. The modernist trend emerged in the

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Oscar Vázquez

and artistic circles. Science and Charity is an example of how popular allegories were transformed by late nineteenth-century artists to help visualize larger social, metaphysical and, ultimately, aesthetic issues. Picasso’s work, in short, was more than simply the product of a ‘precocious’ 15-year-old boy. It offers an introduction into some general problems of interpretation of nineteenth-century European painting as a whole, and Spain specifically, at a key turning point in Picasso, and Modernism’s, trajectory. Ultimately, if the arts themselves were sick – as

in Spain in the nineteenth century
John Baxendale

point of the plot, as if staying in one place will simply not encompass what Priestley wants to say. ‘England’ is also tied up with Priestley’s identity as a writer, and his estrangement from modernism in the 1920s and 1930s. Modernism saw itself as an international movement, taking up the engagement with European literature pioneered by the previous generation of realists such as Arnold Bennett. From his early days, Priestley pitched his literary tent on English soil, writing about the Englishness of English literature, and its relation to national character.7 Like

in Priestley’s England
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Michael Carter-Sinclair

Christian Social antisemitism: violence in many forms Between the middle of the nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth, parts of Europe, to varying degrees, were subject to outbreaks of antisemitism. These outbreaks might be spontaneous or organised. They might take the form of damage to, or the destruction of, Jewish religious buildings. They might be state-organised pogroms, or boycotts of Jewish-owned businesses; but they all marked Jews as ‘outsiders.’ Images of brown-shirted Nazi thugs, abusing Jews in the street or burning books or

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
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Paul Blackledge

called into question as large research projects generated conflictual rather than cumulative results. More positively, the publication in 1973 of both Hayden White’s Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Clifford Geertz’s The Interpretation of Cultures, alongside the publication in the 1960s and 1970s of the work of ‘Roland Barthes, Pierre Bourdieu, Jacques Derrida, Marshall Sahlins, Raymond Williams, and especially Michel Foucault’, as Bonnell and Hunt maintain, ‘changed the intellectual landscape’. Moreover, this new intellectual

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

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Author: John Potvin

Richly illustrated with over 110 colour and black and white images, the book productively contests the supposedly exclusive feminine aspect of the style moderne (art deco). It explores how alternative, parallel and overlapping experiences and expressions of decorative modernism, nationalism, gender and sexuality in the heady years surrounding World War I converge in the protean figure of the deco dandy. As such, the book significantly departs from and corrects the assumptions and biases that have dominated scholarship on and popular perceptions of art deco. The book outlines how designed products and representations of and for the dandy both existed within and outwith normative expectations of gender and sexuality complicating men’s relationship to consumer culture more broadly and the moderne more specifically. Through a sustained focus on the figure of the dandy, the book offers a broader view of art deco by claiming a greater place for the male body and masculinity in this history than has been given to date. The mass appeal of the dandy in the 1920s was a way to redeploy an iconic, popular and well-known typology as a means to stimulate national industries, to engender a desire for all things made in France. Important, essential and productive moments in the history of the cultural life of Paris presented in the book are instructive of the changing role performed by consumerism, masculinity, design history and national identity.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.