Christian Social antisemitism: violence in many forms
Between the middle of the nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth, parts of Europe, to varying degrees, were subject to outbreaks of antisemitism. These outbreaks might be spontaneous or organised. They might take the form of damage to, or the destruction of, Jewish religious buildings. They might be state-organised pogroms, or boycotts of Jewish-owned businesses; but they all marked Jews as ‘outsiders.’ Images of brown-shirted Nazi thugs, abusing Jews in the street or burning books or
Database, the Foxe Project or the ODNB. There is a
concern that the normal critical faculties of academics have been
suspended when faced with glossy and well-organized databases of
this kind: it is as well to remember that a database of any kind is
only as good as the source materials upon which it draws, and the
organization and accessibility of the data.
New -isms became prominent from the 1950s onwards: modernism,
postmodernism, deconstructionism, feminism and receptionism
being five of the most important for our subject. The modernist trend
emerged in the
an orthodoxy based on tradition rather than deﬁnition.
No public statement was issued. Rather, the Congregations pursued a
policy of silent censure and condemnation.In 1894,M.D.Leroy’s Evolution
des espèces was condemned by the Index at the instigation of the Jesuit
newspaper La Civilta Cattolica. The paper had been founded in the 1850s
by Pius IX and, since the publication of Origin of Species, had fought a
running battle with evolutionists in Europe and America. Leroy’s work was
found to be in error but the Index resisted issuing a public deﬁnition of
Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
In the foreboding political atmosphere of late 1930s Europe
Faith’s social meaning had to be actively discovered . Murry saw the Moot as agreeing that ‘the Christian mind’ was ‘something which is created (or more truly re-created ) in us by our knowledge of reality’. 2 Gilbert Shaw urged a ‘rebirth’ of social Christianity rather than a recovery of earlier models (such as ‘medievalism’). 3 Europe awaited, a CNL essay insisted, ‘a new Reformation’. 4 Oldham saw the CNL ’s mission as ‘to define a faith and purpose’, combining ‘new’ aspects with rediscovered ‘lost’ ones. 5 Mannheim also saw a need to ‘re-state’ the faith
could combine together in new syntheses.
Nonetheless, the most striking feature of post-Enlightenment
THE DEBATE ON THE CRUSADES
investigation of the crusades was, as von Sybel had hinted, a willingness to marry the crusades to contemporary obsessions and
experience. Just as the Reformation had done, so the French and
Industrial Revolutions fundamentally recast debates and understanding of crusading’s nature and significance. The crusades
could be regarded as the antithesis of modernism, whether that
was considered good or bad, matching an astonishing range of
current. Though not identical, there is a remarkable symmetry between the
views of European corporations and imperia in early modernism and today. The
attitude that regards veiling as either hostile, submissive, traditional or unmodern, in other words that regards gender issues as a cultural difference that needs
to be eradicated, is not contemporary or an anomaly. It is rooted in historical
legal and epistemological categories from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that construct European civilization as both foundational and normative.
These categories and
Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Refracted visions: Street photography,
humanism and the loss of innocence
In 1999, the Belfast-based design historian David Brett published a short pithy
book on the influence of what Max Weber described as ‘Protestant asceticism’ on architectural design and material culture in post-Reformation Europe
and North America (Brett, 1999; Weber 2002: 112–22). In the preface to the
expanded second edition, Brett acknowledged that the original book was written in the context of the Troubles and his interest in the possibility of a scientific
Church, State and modernity in contemporary Ireland
David Carroll Cochran
which he defines as ‘a civilisation where the structures, institutions, and culture
were all supposed to reflect the Christian nature of the society’ (Taylor 1999: 17).
In its purest form, this was the confessional state, long the norm across Europe, in
which throne and altar were united so that the law privileged a particular Christian
Church and enforced its moral teachings. Over several centuries, however, secularism weakened this arrangement and eventually ‘dethroned’ Christendom,
a process that often involved violence, especially in Catholic countries
occupied Europe. Communications were easier with the USA, such as with Niebuhr’s Christianity and Crisis , which acted as a partner to The Christian News-Letter .
These Christian efforts took place in an even wider media context. Christian newspapers and journals of course addressed religious viewpoints on the war and society, but so did more secular media. The Times and the Manchester Guardian regularly carried statements by senior clergy and gave Christian views on the war and post-war rebuilding. (A prominent joint statement by