Table 11: Family background and immunisation, in Gray and Cartwright, Diphtheria Immunisation in 1951 , p. 16.
The Ministry acted upon this information with its propaganda campaign. Although this is not made explicit in the literature, advertising space was bought in papers such as the Sunday Express , News of the World and People , but not in more middle-class papers such as the Mail on Sunday , Sunday Times or Observer . 109 By 1951 the number
children are under-vaccinated for a variety of reasons. Some of those have been convinced that certain vaccines do not work – such as through the influence of anti-vaccination campaigners on the Somali-American community in Minnesota. 24 Others, particularly middle-class parents, doubt the need for or safety of vaccines produced by pharmaceutical companies and governments whose motives they find suspicious. 25
There is a narrative among some in the public health community that this is inevitable. Public health is a victim of its own success. 26
of charge, and in 1853 made routine childhood vaccination compulsory. 55 This caused much resentment from a number of constituencies, creating large anti-vaccination societies that objected to the procedure on the grounds of local autonomy, scientific doubt, personal freedom, the intrusion of the state into private matters of child rearing, religious objection, animal rights and resentment at the use of Poor Law institutions to treat the middleclasses. 56
Developments in bacteriology and medical procedures that had given rise to the power of
branches across the country. 87 Certain sections of the public clearly believed in the importance of routine childhood vaccination; but these were voluntary organisations of a middle-class bent concerned primarily with motherhood. 88 Without central coordination and resources, the campaign never fully developed.
The 1960s – Commonwealth Immigration Bill
The campaign for improved routine smallpox vaccination rates in the 1950s did not see an appreciable increase in uptake. But this did not cause undue anxiety among staff at the Ministry of Health. There were five
immunising individuals to prevent CRS. 91 NADBRC and the Spastics Society were both what the disability rights movement would call traditional charities, often staffed and run by middle-class people concerned with the medical aspects of impairment rather than with tackling structural inequalities that made discrimination against disabled people worse. 92 Class had shown itself to be a factor in rubella immunisation before. Girls in private schools, for instance, had been shown to be far less likely to get the vaccine than those from state schools. 93 Now, one DHSS civil