the US as a strategic partner well disposed to Brazilian development. Castelo Branco’s successor as military president Artur da Costa e Silva consequently redirected his country’s foreign policy to something approximating the política externa independente. In a pattern that has parallels with the PT foreign policy of the 2000s, Brazil moved to a foreign policy of ‘resposible pragmatism’, becoming a Third World country pushing for structural changes in global economicgovernance and actively campaigning to head the Group of 77. Regional coordination efforts focused
Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker, and Corinne Wales
Trust, interested in increasing electoral turnout. The letters advised recipients that we would be contacting them to discuss voting and provided contact details to enable recipients to register any concerns.
The door-to-door canvassing was coordinated by the Institute for Political and EconomicGovernance, a University of Manchester research institute. The canvassers were predominantly postgraduate students who were enthusiastic about raising electoral turnout, had a good knowledge of the research topic, and had an interest in the objectives of the project
campaign focused on the Chancellor as an epitome of caution and common sense. ‘We had four good years’ she remarked in the aftermath of her victory. No other eurozone leader could dare to make such a claim in 2013 and it showed how introspective the mood in Germany had become. The long election campaign had delayed key decisions on the extent to which Europe would be subject to economicgovernance. Complicated negotiations between the CDU and potential coalition partners stretched ahead which threatened to put back the timetable for a proposed banking union towards 2016
of global economicgovernance (World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Bank) to achieve these goals, and we support fair trade, more aid, debt cancellation and the campaign to Make Poverty History. Development can bring growth in life-expectancy and in the enjoyment of life, easing burdensome labour and shortening the working day. It can bring freedom to youth, possibilities of exploration to those of middle years, and security to old age. It enlarges horizons and the opportunities for travel, and helps make strangers into friends. Global
financial speculators. The search for a new centralising framework meant to establish economicgovernance occurs at a sometimes glacial pace because it has to accommodate the perspectives of the various interest groups entrenched in the EU power structure.
The impression is given of an oligarchy of interests scrambling to stabilise a project that has badly lost its way. A prominent casualty has been the European values that are supposed to provide solidarity for members in difficulty, but that are now increasingly rhetorical ones. In order for such a nadir to be reached
the irresponsibility of many financial institutions had not been checked by those regulating the eurozone’s financial affairs. The language of political union and economicgovernance for the eurozone used by Merkel and Draghi (despite his lack of any kind of political mandate) masked the fact that EU decision-makers had no viable strategy for reviving stricken economies.
The financial sector had not become a protected zone of the eurozone overnight. Ever since the passing of the Single European Act in 1986, its perceived needs had come to shape the concerns of EU
that Southern countries were in fact capable of endogenously managing their own economic affairs. This, combined with the dramatic economic improvements under the Lula presidency – which saw Brazil go from owing the IMF $50 billion in 2002 to loaning it $10 billion in 2009 – opened the space for Brazil’s legitimate inclusion in key economicgovernance institutions such as the G20 Finance and the quieter, but possibly more significant Financial Stability Forum (Armijo and Katada, 2014 ). Indeed, IMF confidence in former Brazilian macro-economic officials is such that
of pan-European solutions, was dragging its feet because it wished to exempt many of its own banks from such a regime. 11 EU anti-crisis measures have lacked substance. Often their purpose appears to be to provide sound-bites for the crisis summits held at regular intervals since the spring of 2010, or else position beleaguered leaders to overcome electoral challenges (such as the contest Angela Merkel faced in September 2013). Plans for economicgovernance of the EU contain bold intentions but they are invariably vague on detail. There is no architecture in place
about global economicgovernance, but present venues where the actual decision making on daily questions is not dominated by the North.
International multilateral action
The BRICS also stand as a key example of how Brazil has used its expanded engagement with the Global South to magnify its international voice. A constant refrain in Brazilian speeches and statements was that the relative distribution of global power contained implicit and embedded inequities that threatened sustainable development (for example, survey the documents collected in Guimarães, 2006
as of writing had yet to be implemented. A more forward reaching attempt to shift global economicgovernance came from Brazil, with the idea that the BRICS countries might provide balance of payments support to floundering members of the Euro (Leahy, 2011 ). Implicit in the idea of a BRICS rescue fund was an apparent assumption that China would provide the major part of the capital, something which Beijing quietly decided against, leaving Dilma on her own to publicly muse about the possibilities of Brazilian financial aid for former colonial master, Portugal