world, the global increase in forced
migration does give reason for serious concern about the growing stigmatisation of irregular migrants and refugees as ‘crimmigrant’ others (Aas),
and about the ways in which the securitisation and fortification of borders
increase the citizenship gap and jeopardise migrants’ lives by forcing them
to undertake perilous journeys. Such concerns gave impetus to Chapter 6,
which examined the nexus of forced migration, border control, securitisation
and humanitarianism through the lens of some contemporary works of art
This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.
field of war and media has established that news reproduces and visualises –overwhelmingly –the kinship and body metaphors. In particular, the peace
journalism schools of Johan Galtung (Galtung and Fischer 2013), Jake Lynch and
Anna McGoldrick (Lynch and McGoldrick 2005) have shown how news represents the international community in terms of ‘people like us’, in terms of ethnic
and national identity. This results in a hierarchy of the human in humanitarianism (Chouliaraki 2013). Humanitarian emergencies bring ‘the family’ together but
what news media cover is
– a genuine multicultural and transcultural ‘contact-zone’.
The language of humanitarianism
Let us return to the cultural trope of the migrant as victim. In recent years,
a strong emphasis on screening migrants to sort the ‘good’ and desirable
migrants from the ‘bad’, undesired migrants has transformed the politics
of immigration in Europe.93 Anthropologists Didier Fassin and Richard
Rechtman have demonstrated that this transformation has also caused a shift
in the European conception of asylum since the 1990s, leading to a weakening
of the legitimacy of asylum for
Remixed lives, reincarnated images and live- streamed co- presence
. ‘Witnessing War: Economies of Regulation in Reporting War and
Conflict.’ Communication Review 12: 215–26.
Chouliaraki, Lilie. 2013. The Ironic Spectator: Solidarity in the Age of Post-Humanitarianism.
Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chouliaraki, Lilie. 2014. ‘‘I have a voice’: The Cosmopolitan Ambivalence of Convergent
Journalism.’ In Citizen Journalism: Global Perspective, vol. 2, edited by Einar Thorsen and
Stuart Allan, 51–66. New York: Peter Lang.
Cocozza, Paula. 2014. ‘How a First-Time Film-Maker Alerted the World to Venezuela’s
Student Protests.’ The Guardian, 17
Development (Part 1: The First Wave)’, Humanity: An International Journal of Human
Rights, Humanitarianism and Development, 6:3 (Winter, 2015), pp. 429–63; J. M.
Hodge, ‘Writing the History of Development (Part 2: Longer, Deeper, Wider)’,
Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism and Development,
7:1 (Spring, 2016), pp. 125–74. On development and culture, see A. Sen, ‘How
Does Culture Matter?’, in M. Walton and V. Rao (eds), Culture and Public Action:
A Cross-disciplinary Dialogue on Development Policy (Washington, DC: World Bank
A node in the web of transatlantic ‘traffic’ in the second half of the nineteenth century
Like Whitman, Nencioni affiliated himself with this
universal humanitarianism and put his literary criticism at its
service. Signorini moved on and embraced class consciousness
together with Proudhon’s socialist philosophy and art theory.
There is no proof that Signorini ever read Whitman’s
Leaves of Grass. However, one of his paintings,
L’alzaia (1864), offers a
–5, 52–3, 57; C. Pinney, Photography and Anthropology (London: Reaktion, 2011), pp. 18–41; A. Maxwell, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions: Representations of the ‘Native’ and the Making of European Identities (London: Leicester University Press, 1999), pp. 38–59; J. Lydon, Photography, Humanitarianism, Empire (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), pp. 47–55.
A. Groeneveld, ‘Photography in aid of science’, in Toekang Potret: 100 Years
humanitarianism of his early work and the social activism he developed in the 1840s. It
revisits the life of history to visualise British culture as the battle between aggressive,
pedagogic rationality and visionary, altruistic creativity. It identifies traditional
History Painting as a calcified system designed to establish limits and regularities, which
it internalises in the form of the pedagogue. It critiques this tradition through the
identification of Chetham as the subject of the ‘Life Dream’, the hero of
wife in The
Last of England , where he suggests ‘[t]he circle of her love moves with
her’, comes very close to the kind imagery deployed by Comte when he wrote about
Clotilde de Vaux, his archetype of moralised love. See Brown, The Exhibition , p. 6.
Mathilde Blind, a strong presence in Brown’s life during the production of the
Manchester murals, uses a critical framework coloured by Comtean rational humanitarianism
in The Ascent of Man (1889), where evolution is imagined in terms of raw energy