US military forces. 56 The economic sanctions placed on Iraq at the end of the war have had particularly bad effects on Iraqi women. 57 In other contexts, economic globalisation and the restructuring policies of the international monetary institutions may be implicated in the creation of security crises. 58 The premise of both security traditionalists and progressives, that
opportunity to gain freedoms and to enjoy new status. 54 Women’s active participation in nationalist and revolutionary struggles has sometimes facilitated their subsequent assertion of political and social rights. 55 For example, the Iraqi Women’s Federation played an important role during the Iran–Iraq war in helping Iraqi women to exercise their roles in all walks of life and
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
Figures sourced from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/issues/women/wom eninpk.shtml. 5 Jacqueline Siapno (2008) has reported that gender sensitivity within PNTL remains poor, particularly noting sexual harassment within PNTL and the existence of ‘glass ceilings’ for women within Timor-Leste’s security sector. References Al-Ali, N. and N. Pratt. 2009. “The United States, the Iraqi Women’s Diaspora and Women’s ‘Empowerment’ in Iraq.” In Women and War in the Middle East, edited by N. Al-Ali and N. Pratt, 65–98. New York: Zed Books. Alves, D. 2010. “Domingas Micato