reference to JacquesChirac’s infamous
comments in 1991 concerning an ‘overdose’ of immigrants, whom he stereotypically described as having too many children, making too much noise and cooking
foods with odours offensive to their French neighbours (Le Puill 1991).
Beyond such easy targets as exploitative employers and anti-immigrant political
rhetoric, Yıldız’s plays represent a further step, in that they also call on immigrants
to think critically about their own attitudes and behaviour. Such a self-critique
may suggest another opening for immigrant communities. The
But on this occasion it used its political influence to bolster the claim, with President Bill Clinton phoning Tony Blair, JacquesChirac and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl shortly before the missile strikes to ask for their support. Without having time to consult their legal experts, all three agreed – and made concurring public statements immediately after the U.S. action. As a result of these quick expressions of support by three influential states, other countries were more restrained in their responses than they might have been. This in turn helped obfuscate the
suggest, urged a move away from repentance and towards pride in the French
nation. Pascal Bruckner, a philosopher, also joined in this trend, publishing his
book La Tyrannie de la pénitence (2006) insisting that that France should escape
its thrall to the ‘tyrannie de la pénitence’ (tyranny of guilt) and regain its place
in the world. Therefore Sarkozy came to power supported by a groundswell of
intellectual and popular support and a determination to move away from JacquesChirac’s policies of accepting state responsibility for its history, unpalatable as it
is true that some of Honeyford’s claims about self-segregation
were quite inflammatory, his main point, that multicultural piety produces bad
educational attainment and insufficient acculturation, has been borne out since the
2 For a good historical account, see Asari et al. (2008).
3 Gaullism traditionally stands for a strong role for the state in economic affairs (dirigisme) and international affairs (a nuclear France), and for a strongly conservative
approach in matters dealing with immigration and French overseas possessions.