narrative plot resolution, conventional editing techniques, easily
identifiably characters, genres and styles which combined to make this
type of filmmaking the dominant model for commercial cinema for the
twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Many of the tropes and styles which
we take for granted in conventional filmmaking are features of classical
Italian neo-realism emerged in Italy in the immediate post-war period
and has traditionally been read as offering a commentary on the social
plight of the people and the nation in this period. Although
methodologies found in the sciences, the study of
film does not foreground a single methodological approach. As film
developed as a discipline, different methodologies also developed;
some adhered to processes of film critique and textual analysis, while
some espoused archival work and the importance of historical and
social context. As shown in Chapter 4, the development of film as a
discipline has been heavily shaped by different trends, methodologies
and approaches. Movements such as Italian neo-realism or the British
new wave emerged at key historical moments, and the
Austerity, abundance and race in post-war visual culture
David C. Wall
Beaux Arts Gallery. For
his part, the painter John Bratby rejected these labels altogether
and, stating unequivocally in a BBC interview in 1960, ‘I am
not a social realist painter’, he said that he would prefer
to call his style ‘neo-realism’. 14
Like much left politics of the period, Berger’s
socialism was an interesting (and sometimes contradictory) mixture
Real sympathy, the imitation of suffering and the visual arts after Burke’s sublime
, ‘Reenactment and Neo-Realism’, in Iain McCalman, and Paul A.
Pickering ( eds), Historical Re-enactment: From Realism to the Affective Turn
(London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 79–89, pp. 83–4.
Wounding realities and ‘painful excitements’
52 For Diderot, art could at best be an approximation of nature, aiming at that
‘grand magic that consists in approaching nature very close’ or a little closer
(‘un peu pres’) but never so close as taking its place.
53 Diderot on Art, vol. I, ed. Goodman, p. 64.
54 Roche, ‘Notes from the Field’, pp. 506–7.
55 See author’s ‘The
even includes a surprisingly bad performance (one of
his last) by Volonté’. A History of Italian Cinema (New York and London: Continuum,
2009), p. 248.
48 Millicent Marcus, Italian Film in the Light of Neorealism (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1986), pp. 340–1.
49 Marcus argues that the State is uninterested in the South indicting Italy’s colonial
pursuits in North Africa.
50 Modleski, ‘Clint Eastwood and Male Weepies’, 154, original italics.
51 Modleski, ‘Clint Eastwood and Male Weepies’, 150.
52 In a letter in which he discusses the screenplay