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South African liberal humanists in postwar London
Andrea Thorpe

instrumental in Pan-African politics, focused around a group of activists that included Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah, who would go on to lead Kenya and Ghana, respectively, to independence. Through Padmore, Abrahams also became deeply involved in Pan-Africanist, anti-colonial activities in London. He was briefly employed by the British Communist Party before, like Padmore, abandoning any formal attachment to communism. Abrahams, along with Padmore, West Indian activist Ras Makonnen and Kenyatta, was on the organising committee of

in South African London
Andrea Thorpe

politics, drawing on the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power movement and Pan-Africanism as much as on the South African Black Consciousness Movement, informed the ‘bold anti-racism’ that manifested in unrest in British cities (Williams 2015 : 3). Historians of the anti-apartheid struggle have attested that the 1980s saw the international anti-apartheid struggle intensify (Thörn 2006 : 120), and Williams argues that ‘South African politics became uniquely part of the political landscape of Britain in a way that no other country had done since perhaps the Biafran

in South African London
Dinaw Mengestu’s The Beautiful Things that Heaven Bears (2007) and Teju Cole’s Open City (2011)

satiric, a joint venture of acidic creativity coloured by a gallows humour that characterises much of Mengestu’s work. 19 As Yogita Goyal notes, ‘even as they parody the dream of African freedom in this macabre game, their friendship also evokes a pan-African tradition, albeit in ambiguous fashion’. 20 In his ‘sober hours’, Joseph is working on a cycle of poems that tries to elaborate another kind of African history, one attuned to the legacies of colonialism and imperialism. His work traces ‘the history of the Congo from King Leopold to the death of Patrice Lumumba

in The politics of male friendship in contemporary American fiction
Abigail Ward

-year period and in varying locations; for example, the account of a female black pioneer rests against that of a white slave-ship captain, suggesting the need for each story to be heard. Non-fictional works The Atlantic Sound (2000) and A New World Order (2001) chart Phillips’s ongoing interest in what it means to ‘belong’ in the late twentieth century. In these later works, through visiting, and writing about, the points of the triangular trade (Africa, the Caribbean and US, the UK), and engaging with seemingly disparate notions like football affiliations and Pan-Africanism

in Caryl Phillips, David Dabydeen and Fred D’Aguiar
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American horror comics as Cold War commentary and critique

Printing Terror places horror comics of the mid-twentieth century in dialogue with the anxieties of their age. It rejects the narrative of horror comics as inherently and necessarily subversive and explores, instead, the ways in which these texts manifest white male fears over America’s changing sociological landscape. It examines two eras: the pre-CCA period of the 1940s and 1950s, and the post-CCA era to 1975. The authors examine each of these periods through the lenses of war, gender, and race, demonstrating that horror comics are centred upon white male victimhood and the monstrosity of the gendered and/or racialised other. It is of interest to scholars of horror, comics studies, and American history. It is suitably accessible to be used in undergraduate classes.

Yvette Hutchison

‘warrior men and women’, and compares them to peoples across Africa who ‘earned . . . victories’ or built empires, like the Ethiopians and the Ashanti of Ghana, suggesting that they have a strong claim to the land and a pan-African identity. However, these comparisons are made without any contextualisation or problematising of very diverse histories of empires, slavery and different kinds of subjugation. It is worth noting that of all the historical memories of the Afrikaners, Mbeki chooses to reference the ‘Boer’s’ in terms of their struggle with the British, and their

in South African performance and archives of memory
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Tim Woods

into two parts: Chapters 1 to 4 focus on pan-African commonalities, while Chapters 5 to 7 offer more detailed, historicised and territorialised accounts of recent South African writing. Chapter 8 attends to a more overarching issue of the usefulness of metafictionality and postmodernity as terms to understand African literature, and also acts as something of a concluding assessment, especially since all the preceding

in African pasts
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A black rebel with a cause
Azzedine Haddour

attractive location for these writers and for other expatriates of black American origin. Paris became the hub of Pan-Africanism, bringing together black Americans and francophone blacks, such as René Maran, Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor and Léon Damas. This Pan-Africanism generated a nationalism of colour which took shape in negritude. Two other movements influenced these students: the avant-garde aesthetic of the surrealists and the radical politics of the French Communist Party. On 1 June 1932, a group of West Indian students (namely Étienne and Thélus Léro, Jules

in Frantz Fanon, postcolonialism and the ethics of difference
Manchester’s poetry in performance (1960s to the present)
Corinne Fowler

). Crucially, too, the city was also a meeting place for anti-colonial nationalists. A leading figure was Ras Makonnen, whose restaurant The Cosmopolitan was situated on Manchester’s busy Oxford Road. As John McLeod relates, the restaurant allowed ‘ad hoc and adversarial links’ to be forged between pan-African radicals, Indian Nationalists and Jewish groups resisting anti-semitism (McLeod, 2002: 53).17 Makonnen set up a publishing company and a bookshop in Manchester together with a monthly periodical entitled Pan-Africa. Profits from The Cosmopolitan were used to fund the

in Postcolonial Manchester
Critical overview and conclusion
Jago Morrison

(notwithstanding all Gikandi’s caveats) to give far too little weight to the political contradictions of the period that produced Achebe and his work, I would argue. The rival claims of tribalism, regionalism, pan-Africanism and Nigerian nationhood do not represent subtle gradations of position in the 1950s, 1960s or even the 1980s: they are the fundamental stakes in debates that for many, in Biafra particularly, turned out to be life-and-death affairs. Among all of Achebe’s writings, undoubtedly the most idealistic and doctrinaire is The Ahiara Declaration. Nowhere Morrison

in Chinua Achebe