expectations and expressions of gender identity (Reay, 1998 ). Modern Australian, Welsh, Scottish, Irish, English or American societies all have subtly, and not so subtly, different approaches to the body, family, marriage, childbirth, social class, gender and age or education, based on wider cultural contexts like history, religion or law. Most importantly there is not in fact a single approach to these ideas in any of the places described. Indeed, your own attitude to family, for example, might depend on your past, your background and, importantly, the regional or class
order to be experienced as relevant.
Two examples of tentative World Heritage sites that I have run into in my work as a historical archaeologist are Viking Monuments and Sites, with cooperation between Denmark, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, and Germany, and The Rise of Systematic Biology, with cooperation between Australia, England, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and South Africa. The latter example involves botanical gardens and sites from the eighteenth century, places that are linked to the botanist Carl Linnaeus in Sweden ( whc.unesco.org ). At local, regional, or
1973, was the US, which had also played a central role in the whole process (cf. Batisse & Bolla 2003 (French): 32, 89; 2005 (English): 29, 85) – as one of the world’s two superpowers at that time, serving as a model for others. In 1974, a further nine countries followed – Egypt (7 February), Iraq (5 March), Bulgaria (7 March), Sudan (6 June), Algeria (24 June), Australia (22 August), Democratic Republic of the Congo (23 September), Nigeria (23 October), and Niger (23 December). By the end of 1974, 10 (7.2 %) of the UN’s then 138 member states had ratified the
instance The Heritage Reader (Fairclough et al. 2009 ) and Heritage Studies (Sørensen & Carman 2009 ). Cooperation between academics at universities in Australia, Sweden, and the UK has led to the formation of the Association of Critical Heritage Studies (since 2010; www.criticalheritagestudies.org). Mention may also be made of the textbook Heritage: Critical Approaches (Harrison 2013 ). There was a reprint of Wright’s On Living in an Old Country in 2009, and Lowenthal has revised his standard work in The Past is a Foreign Country – Revisited (2015). But
“tragic crisis” in which human beings, with their death instinct and weapons of mass destruction, were threatened by ruin and disaster (Brown 1959 : x, 234ff).
Both Donald Horne and Agnes Heller regarded Europe as a museum – and that was not meant as praise. As onlookers from the New World, Horne from Australia and Heller from the US, they observed a European continent sunk in its own past. Heller wrote a funeral address for Europe – the museum that she herself had left: weakened creativity, acquired idiocy and narrow-mindedness, loss of meaning and cultural
’ (Edmonds and Garner 2016 : n.p.). Outraged, the turf cutter passed the object on to Alan, knowing that ‘he’ll look after it better’. He did. In his hands this object becomes the ‘swaddledidaff’ of Strandloper (Garner 1996 ): the lucky stone that the Marton labourer, William Buckley, takes with him when he is transported to Australia ( Figure 4.9 ). He escapes incarceration and finds himself among an aboriginal community who see a very different suite of qualities in the stone to the blunt mineralogical description above.
4.9 The ‘swaddledidaff’ – a haematite