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Affiliation, allusion, allegory
Rachel E. Hile

to typical imagery and language of pastoral. But the intervening lines quoted above do not fit the genre; instead, they echo the ways that Spenser introduces allegorical personifications in the first three books of The Faerie Queene, which, published less than a year earlier, Spenser could expect his readers to know.9 Although allegorical meaning appears frequently in pastoral, as both Puttenham (“in rude speeches to insinuate and glance at greater matters”; Art, 128) and Sidney aver (poets “under the pretty tales of wolves and sheep” speak to larger concerns

in Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

3 Spenser and the English literary system in the 1590s The previous two chapters have analyzed Spenser’s methods of creating satirical meaning in his early poetry. It would now be sensible, and might even be expected, to devote a chapter to the satirical episodes in The Faerie Queene, especially the second installation of 1596, which includes a great deal more allegorical commentary on contemporary historical events than the first three books do. Instead, I veer in another direction entirely and in the remainder of the book will consider how other poets used

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Rachel E. Hile

search for indirect satirical meanings. By looking at textual indeterminacy in this way, I am thinking about the process of interpretation, rather than the products of interpretation, in order to shift the focus away from efforts to “fix,” through interpretive certainty, texts that were written with the goal of resisting all such certainty in order to protect the author from punishment or censorship. Speaking of The Faerie Queene, T.K. Dunseath wrote in 1968, “Unless the study of historical allegory can further the larger understanding of Spenser’s poem, its single

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Theory and Spenserian practice
Rachel E. Hile

which symbol is natural and allegory is arbitrary, has clouded discussion for too long, so I will simply state that I use both terms here to refer to processes of meaning-making that depend on social construction and communal understandings shared by members of a culture.) In The Faerie Queene (2.4.4), the forelock of the figure eventually identified (allusively, several stanzas later) as Occasion served within the culture as a symbol of Occasion or Opportunity, generally represented in contemporary emblem books as positive opportunities. Spenser alters this symbolic

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Sukanta Chaudhuri

of an autonomous fiction. The Calender presents a world radically distinct from the real and contemporary, even while notably overlapping with it. Just so, later, would the land of Faerie in S­ penser’s magnum opus absorb the reality of Elizabethan times within a notably different chivalric and supernatural universe. It is also a pastoral universe. The Faerie Queene has two cantos of open ­pastoralism in Book VI; but the whole work is suffused with the mythicized nature-settings, and alternative social orders and value-systems located there, that characterize

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance
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Imitation of Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

virtue and vice reside? Perhaps the question of “where,” though answered by the poets, is not as important as calling attention to the fact that they were asking it at all. Although Spenser was hesitant to criticize his queen directly, his responses to this question in such texts as Mother Hubberds Tale and Colin Clouts Come Home Againe, as well as to some extent in The Faerie Queene, show his own awareness of the moral emptiness of some corners of the English royal court, though he balances his satirical criticisms in both Mother Hubberd and Colin Clout with high

in Spenserian satire
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Invisibility and erasure in The Two Merry Milkmaids
Chloe Porter

In James Shirley’s St Patrick for Ireland , first performed in the Werburgh St Theatre in Dublin in 1639, the Irish prince Corybreus becomes invisible by means of a magical bracelet provided by the pagan priest Archimagus, an explicit reference to the deceitful, Catholic Archimago of Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene. 10 Corybreus uses the bracelet in a plot to rape a noblewoman named Emeria, and

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Rachel E. Hile

poem. Hibbard points out parallels between this poem and Spenser’s “To the right Honourable the Earle of Oxenforde,” one of the dedicatory sonnets to The Faerie Queene, while Stapleton notes a generalized Spenserianism in the diction, including “the Spenserian trademark ‘Ne,’ a line of mellifluous monosyllables, filler adjectives … that do very little to modify the nouns they precede, and the distorted word-order to fit the rhyme: all can be found in practically any passage of Spenser” (Hibbard, Nashe, 56; Stapleton, “Nashe,” 38). The satirical import of a dedicatory

in Spenserian satire
John Marriott

Lost , Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest , Spenser’s The Faerie Queene , Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Marlowe’s Tamburlaine the Great , Thomas Moore’s Lalla Rookh and Donne’s The Embassy all reveal knowledge of travel accounts and geographies. But these accounts were not used merely as a ready taxonomy of exotic characters and phenomena; they shaped geographical

in The other empire
Negotiating vanity
Faye Tudor

‘seemed vnto hir selfe a second Narcissus’.6 Female artists who represent themselves are hampered by the mirror’s classic, symbolic associations with women which regularly portrays them in an unfavourable light. ‘She held a mirrhour bright’ In The Faerie Queene Edmund Spenser addresses the traditional emblems of vanity – the mirror and the (often naked) young woman transfixed by it – to generate a negative exemplary mirror which serves to warn: So proud she shyned in her Princely state, Looking to heauen; for earth she did disdayne, And sitting high; for lowly she did

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660