(2001), pp. 169–88. And see Gayatri C. Spivak, p. 20 of the same
issue, in Meyda Yegenoglu and Mahmut Mutman, ‘Mapping the Present:
Interview with Gayatri Spivak’, New Formations: A Journal of
Culture/Theory/Politics, 45 (2001).
Chinua Achebe, Home and Exile (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Homi K. Bhabha, ‘The Manifesto’, Wasafiri: Caribbean, African, Asian and
Associated Literatures in English, 29 (1999), p. 38.
Meyda Yegenoglu and Mahmut Mutman, ‘Mapping the Present
other ethnic groups.
In the 1980s it had a reputation for drug trafficking and gang warfare.
As so often with inner-city residential areas, different immigrant
populations arrived there, later moving out to somewhat more
affluent areas, confirming the classic geographical pattern identified
by W.I. Thomas and others at the Chicago School of sociology in the
1920s. Before the Jews, who arrived in the early twentieth century,
the Irish lived there. From the mid-twentieth century the majority
of immigrants were Indian, Pakistani and Caribbean. Adjacent to
Transgressing the cordon sanitaire: understanding the English Defence League as a social movement
black Caribbean heritage (2014: 172). While
this survey suggests that people of Pakistani and Bangladeshi background show
the highest level of concern about intermarriage with a white person, they are no
more inclined to reject integration into British society, to reject a British identity
or to contemplate violent protest than are other ethno-religious groups (2014:
172–76).While Sobolewska (2010: 43) does identify a greater sense of alienation,
exclusion and disaffection among young British-born Muslims than among their
immigrant counterparts, this appears to be
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
were trying to reconcile post-Enlightenment views on the equality of
man, justice and ‘Natural Law’, with heightened levels of imperialism throughout Europe and America which had resulted in colonisation of large parts of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Simultaneously,
Western medicine and nursing were undergoing rapid and revolutionary developments in techniques and technology, together with a
more scientific understanding of disease, hygiene and sanitation. The
introduction of nursing and medical knowledge and ‘improvements’
in public health in the colonies
area of inner-city Manchester which has historically large numbers
of African-Caribbean residents (and a reputation in the 1980s and
1990s particularly for gun crime). Moss Side functions as a referent
for violence and risk:
For me it’s … Sort of like Moss – do you know […] There’s places
like round Stockport well not maybe as bad as that (laughing) with
the shootings and things but it’s got a reputation that way and there
is – and there’s areas that I feel in Stockport that have, for me,
have got a reputation that I just wouldn’t – I wouldn
not to send their children to the school in question. Pam,
an African-Caribbean midwife whose child went to school in Chorlton
but lived in Whalley Range, explained how one school ‘just wouldn’t
be on the list’ of possible schools for her children as ‘I went to the
predecessor of that school and that was rubbish’.
Thus, as this chapter has shown, some parents were able to present
the process of applying for a school for their children as relatively
straightforward and stress-free due to an acceptance of, or accommodation with, a narrowing of choice. However, they
street vendors only when they were made redundant. I was also moved to meet an older Senegalese street vendor who had been in North America in the early 1990s. He told me that he had a stall at the market on 125th street in Harlem that City Hall tried, and eventually managed, to shut down following organised action on the part of the African American and black migrant vendors from Africa and the Caribbean (Stoller 1992). As Nick Dines has shown, there is a history of anti-racist organisations collaborating with Piazza Garibaldi vendors to approach the administration
Times (1 December
89 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Coming home – Army nurses think of demobilisation’, Nursing Times (16 February 1946): 127.
90 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Nursing goes forward’, Nursing Times (17 November
1945): 751. Italics in the original.
91 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: For the good of all’, 41–2.
92 Starns, Nurses at War, 150.
93 Karen Flynn, ‘Proletarianization, professionalization and Caribbean immigrant nurses’, Canadian Woman Studies 18, 1 (1998): 57–60; Julia Hallam,
Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
shift in the
response of British governments to settler demands for local control of
areas in those colonies where considerable numbers of British settlers
congregated. Undoubtedly India with its riches constituted by far the
most important of Britain’s possessions, with the Caribbean
Islands perhaps second. Yet by the mid-1830s the sites of White
occupation, where the British sought to form permanent
. And the French, strengthened after
fiscal reform and through retention of the most lucrative of the slave
colonies, St Domingue, began to challenge Britain’s control of the
Caribbean slave trade. Finally, nationalist unrest in Ireland served to
remind the British state that its oldest and nearest colony continued to
be a source of real concern. 32
For many, these events flowed inevitably from the logic