and their advisers to have made the
links between abuse of the law, excessive witch-hunting, and imperial displeasure at an early stage of their judicial engagement with witchcraft allegations, and shaped their legal treatment of these allegations accordingly. In 1605,
for example, one of the reasons given by jurist Friedrich Prenninger in support
WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY
of his advice to the council to pursue allegations of witchcraft against a citizen
and joiner, Hans Georg Hofmann, no further, was that Hofmann might complain
to the Emperor about his
This chapter enumerates the life and works of Dr Martin Luther, from the perspective of his lifelong antagonist Johannes Cochlaeus. It notes some peculiarities during his stay with the Monastery of the brothers of St Augustine, either from some secret commerce with a Demon, or from the disease of epilepsy; fraud after he was made Doctor in Theology; controversies in indulgences; and attacks he raised against the doctrine of the Roman church. It suggests that by his cunning, as he complained that he was unjustly pressed by his adversaries and driven into public, Luther gained the greatest favor for himself, not just among the simple people, but also among many grave, learned men, who believed in his words through genuine simplicity. Meanwhile, Cochlaeus, for the sake of asserting and confirming the truth of the Catholic faith against any heretics, also published several books in Latin, criticizing Luther and Phillip Melanchthon.
mentalities and social control. At another level, the
eighteenth century saw an increasing popular access to and engagement with
printed material. While the extent of the growth of literacy during the
Enlightenment is a matter of considerable debate, there is no doubt that there
was a publishing boom, and that it was partly inspired by a popular thirst
for literary knowledge. The rise of such printed formats as periodicals and
newspapers have been seen as instrumental in the spread of enlightened
knowledge across society. Yet as the work by Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo
is obviously the whole aim of the process, eliminating his or
her power or even a person may be an important aspect of the trial. However, I am
not only referring to the ‘witch’ or ‘witchcraft’, but to the whole situation of uncertainty which was labelled with the symbolics of witchcraft.
49 Nenonen, Noituus, taikuus, pp. 123–36.
50 Ulvila 11–12 September 1676. Bielkesamlingen, vol. 27: 53v, 54, NAS.
51 A. J. Greimas and J. Courtés, Semiotics and Language: An Analytical Dictionary (Bloomington,  1982), pp. 87–91 (disengagement), pp. 100–2 (engagement).
Christians, reporting the events in all innocence, stated
that she and others maintained their integrity and their Jewishness as far as
possible.12 Moreover, it seems clear that these women were waiting every
day to be freed from the Christians who were holding them. The fact that,
in the final event, they did succeed in escaping from the Christians is taken
as indication that God responded to their deserving behavior and saved
them in a miraculous way. By contrast, the man—her erstwhile fiancé—
behaved in the worst imaginable way in that he violated his engagement