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Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Christopher T. Marsden

, but it is still only governed by a contract with Facebook, which Facebook can change unilaterally. Politicians and telecoms executives who now claim to be in favour of net neutrality are in fact conceding that blocking and throttling users is no longer acceptable to politicians and therefore regulators. They largely only concede ‘negative’ net neutrality. ‘Positive’ net

in Network neutrality
Christopher T. Marsden

IAPs (and much less often generic ISPs), though when I quote regulators such as CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission), BEREC (Body of European Regulators of Electronic Communications) and Ofcom (Office of Communications Regulation), I will not correct their use of the more generic term ‘ISP’ even though they are specifically referring to IAPs. So why do they use this term

in Network neutrality
Oonagh McDonald

nation's payments system or deposits insured by the FDIC. BHCs are regulated by the Federal Reserve, whereas most banks and almost all the large ones are regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. State chartered banks are regulated by their home state regulators and the FDIC at the federal level. The GLBA expressly authorizes the broker-dealer subsidiaries of an FHC to underwrite and deal in all types of securities, including corporate debt and equity securities, without limit as to the amount of revenue the

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Privacy, liability and interception
Christopher T. Marsden

European customers’ content under the Electronic Commerce Directive (EC/2000/31) (ECD) so long as they have no actual or constructive knowledge of that content: if they ‘hear no evil, see no evil and speak no evil.’ 3 Regulators have also been acting as ‘three wise monkeys’ in ignoring evidence that net neutrality is being compromised by IAP decisions to block, throttle and otherwise censor

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

zombie 2 that has sprung to life recently. It is a policy of Internet 3 non-discrimination based on innovation, free speech, privacy and content provider commercial self-interest, imposed on the technocratic economic regulation of telecommunications (telco) local access networks. The regulators, telcos and governments don’t like it one bit. The laws and regulations are formally ‘Open Internet’ not

in Network neutrality
Friends or foes?
Roberto Baldoli and Claudio M. Radaelli

and more generally evidence-based approaches to decision-making establish both rights and obligations: obligations for the regulators or lawmakers, and rights for those affected groups, professions and citizens who want to make their voices heard, and have the right to know about the empirical foundations of a regulatory proposal. The normative stance (i.e. what ought to happen, not necessarily what happens) of impact assessment is the following: in the absence of evidence and the possibility of discussing and criticising it, there is no social authorisation for

in The freedom of scientific research
Oonagh McDonald

Guidelines Further guidelines were issued in December 2006, with the focus this time on concentrations in commercial real estate lending and on sound risk management practices in particular. 10 The regulators had observed the increased concentration and that this added ‘a dimension of risk that compounds the risk inherent in individual loans, making the institutions more vulnerable to cyclical CRE markets’. 11 There should be a risk management framework to identify, monitor and control CRE concentration risks. The responsibilities

in Lehman Brothers