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Anna K. Dickson

different modes of production utilised in the Caribbean and Latin America. In the Caribbean most farmers grow their fruit on farms of five acres or less. Furthermore, because of the topology of the islands, the plots are often steep and the ground unsuitable for any crops other than the versatile banana plant. In contrast, Latin American or ‘dollar bananas’ are grown on large plantations which accrue significant economies of scale; production costs in the Caribbean are, consequently higher (Godfrey, 1998). In addition, three giant transnational corporations dominate the

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Ethnicity and popular music in British cultural studies
Sean Campbell

practitioners, focusing specifically on its treatment of second-generation Irish rock musicians.3 To this end, the chapter re-examines Dick Hebdige’s Subculture (1979), a formative endeavour in the field’s engagement with questions of race, ethnicity and popular music, before going on to consider the more recent response of cultural studies’ practitioners to ‘Britpop’. This discussion draws attention to the narrow parameters of the ‘ethnicity’ framework underpinning this body of work. For if the field’s reception of secondand third-generation African-Caribbean and South Asian

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic
Laura Chrisman

chapter4 21/12/04 11:00 am Page 73 4 Journeying to death: Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic has received huge international acclaim.1 Within American studies, anthropology, black studies, Caribbean studies, cultural studies and literary studies the book has been hailed as a major and original contribution.Gilroy takes issue with the national boundaries within which these disciplines operate, arguing that, as the book jacket tells us there is a culture that is not specifically African, American, Caribbean, or British, but all

in Postcolonial contraventions
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain
Winston James

fact’ry chimneys pourin’ smoke up to de sky, An’ to see de matches-children, dat I hear ‘bout, passin’ by. 1 These stanzas from McKay’s poem – ‘Old England’ – express the conventional, British Caribbean and colonial view of the mother country. It was published in 1912. His opinions, however

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Open Access (free)
Bill Schwarz

his wife again; was never to see his daughter; and he never returned to the Caribbean. This represents a particular variant on the theme of emigration which underwrites the story of twentieth-century Caribbean intellectuals. From 1929 to 1933 Padmore energetically devoted himself to the ideals of Soviet Communism, rising high in the firmament of the Communist administration; thereafter, until his death

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Still unique or just one in the crowd?
Karen E. Smith

particular, the African focus grew into the Lomé partnership with African, Caribbean and Pacific states. The Community later added countries to its network of relations, but always following the regional approach originally set out in the Yaoundé and Lomé Conventions. Relations with the ACP as a regional grouping thus formed the model for the Community’s relations with other countries. Furthermore, the basic building blocks of the EC–ACP relationship – trade preferences, aid and institutionalised dialogue – were extended, on a more limited basis, to other regions

in EU development cooperation
From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

policy has been built over time. Until the 1990s, the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states unequivocally were Europe’s most preferred developing country partners, and ACP–EU relations were the most visible and important component of the EU development cooperation programme. ACP–EU relations started at the very creation of the European Economic Community in 1957 and were elaborated first in the Yaoundé and then in the Lomé Conventions and the 2000 Cotonou Agreement. In many peoples’ eyes the Lomé Convention came to symbolise EU development cooperation, more so

in EU development cooperation
An assessment of EU development aid policies
William Brown

Agreements with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Countries’, COM (97) 537 final, Brussels. CEC (2000), ‘Note to heads of delegation, heads of unit and desk officers: poverty reduction strategy papers: guidance notes’, B2(00)D/4371, source: http://europa.euint/ comm/development/sector/poverty_reduction/index.htm. Cornia, A., R. Jolly and F. Stewart (eds) (1987), Adjustment With a Human Face, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Council of Ministers (1988), ‘Resolution of 31 May 1988 on the economic situation and adjustment process in Sub-Saharan Africa’, in Council of the

in EU development cooperation
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
Anne-Sophie Claeys

(Associated African and Malagasy States) and the franc zone African countries would not be affected. Then, France maintained that only African and Caribbean British colonies should become signatories of the new agreement. The African states of the Commonwealth were considered ‘associable’ while the Asian states of the Commonwealth were not (Grilli, 1993: 26). France believed that the entry of Asian states would unbalance the privileged relation that Europe set up with Africa. The arrival of new African countries 117 EUD7 10/28/03 3:15 PM Page 118 Anne-Sophie Claeys in

in EU development cooperation
From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.