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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

thinkers were trying to reconcile post-Enlightenment views on the equality of man, justice and ‘Natural Law’, with heightened levels of imperialism throughout Europe and America which had resulted in colonisation of large parts of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Simultaneously, Western medicine and nursing were undergoing rapid and revolutionary developments in techniques and technology, together with a more scientific understanding of disease, hygiene and sanitation. The introduction of nursing and medical knowledge and ‘improvements’ in public health in the colonies

in Colonial caring
Jane Brooks

Times (1  December 1945): 801. 89 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Coming ­home – ­Army nurses think of demobilisation’, Nursing Times (16 February 1946): 127. 90 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Nursing goes forward’, Nursing Times (17 November 1945): 751. Italics in the original. 91 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: For the good of all’, 41–2. 92 Starns, Nurses at War, 150. 93 Karen Flynn, ‘Proletarianization, professionalization and Caribbean immigrant nurses’, Canadian Woman Studies 18, 1 (1998): 57–60; Julia Hallam, Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London

in Negotiating nursing
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain

shift in the response of British governments to settler demands for local control of areas in those colonies where considerable numbers of British settlers congregated. Undoubtedly India with its riches constituted by far the most important of Britain’s possessions, with the Caribbean Islands perhaps second. Yet by the mid-1830s the sites of White occupation, where the British sought to form permanent

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
John Marriott

. And the French, strengthened after fiscal reform and through retention of the most lucrative of the slave colonies, St Domingue, began to challenge Britain’s control of the Caribbean slave trade. Finally, nationalist unrest in Ireland served to remind the British state that its oldest and nearest colony continued to be a source of real concern. 32 For many, these events flowed inevitably from the logic

in The other empire
Jack Saunders

.2%) Others     3,736         0.7 (+0.4%) Source : Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December, 1963 (London: HMSO, 1964), pp. 134–51. The Caribbean was another consistent source of nursing labour for Britain, both before independence and after, with Jamaica the largest single contributor. By the end of 1965 between 3,000 and 5,000 Jamaican nurses were at work in British hospitals. In 1977, 8 per cent of all

in Posters, protests, and prescriptions
The expansion and significance of violence in early modern
Richard Reid

, ‘“The Disease of Writing”: Ganda and Nyoro Kinglists in a Newly Literate World’, in J. Miller (ed.), The African Past Speaks: Essays on Oral Tradition and History (Folkestone, 1980). 37 L. Mphande, ‘Heroic and Praise Poetry in South Africa’, in F. Abiola Irele and S. Gikandi (eds), The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 2004). 38 For example, M. Last, The Sokoto Caliphate (London, 1967). 39 LMS Central Africa, Incoming, Box 3: Southon to Thomson, 28 March 1880, encl., ‘History, Country and People of Unyamwezi’. 40 Stanley

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
One or two ‘honorable cannibals’ in the House?
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain

Zealand and the Caribbean’. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998, p. 174. 31 Ibid . 32 Grey to Sir John Pakington, 1852, British Parliamentary Papers , Correspondence and Papers Relating to the Administration of the Colony and Other Affairs in New

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Ana María Carrillo

1980s was exporting biological products (including vaccines, mainly for rabies) to fifteen countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America. Domestic vaccine production was a political priority, because politicians saw that imports were expensive and also because national security dictated protecting public health. ‘Artisanal’ procedures for making vaccines were replaced by industrial methods of production, for which Mexican as well as

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

of bananas, traditionally imported them from whatever country offered the lowest price, whether or not it was linked to the EU through the so-called Lomé Agreement giving preferential trade status to a large number of so-called ACP (African, Pacific and Caribbean) countries. However, a judgement by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg ruled that this was a violation of Lomé, in spite of Germany’s protests that in buying from a country such as Costa Rica it only respected GATT–WTO principles. The economic interests of the Germans (who consume more bananas per

in Destination Europe
Mike Huggins

, trainers and the stable he was in his early twenties and also maintained a flat in Park Lane, London, with a valet and housekeeper.33 Jockeys often socialised together in winter, spending summer’s money in high living, holidaying in St Moritz or the Caribbean, or mixing with ‘society’, the wealthy, famous or notorious international set. They lived hard and sometimes played hard too. Out of season Rae Johnstone was a connoisseur of good wine, good food and attractive women.34 Sometimes, too, personal rivalries led to fights, such as Ingram’s assault on Donoghue in August

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39