Black and 2.6 per cent
are Chinese (compared to the 30.2 per cent who identify as
‘Asian’). 18 Similarly, just 1 per cent of the RCS
‘ecosystem’ are Black African and only 0.2 per cent are
Black Caribbean. 19 These
statistics suggest an overwhelmingly white industry, profession, and
surgical leadership. However, there are plenty of gaps in the
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
were trying to reconcile post-Enlightenment views on the equality of
man, justice and ‘Natural Law’, with heightened levels of imperialism throughout Europe and America which had resulted in colonisation of large parts of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Simultaneously,
Western medicine and nursing were undergoing rapid and revolutionary developments in techniques and technology, together with a
more scientific understanding of disease, hygiene and sanitation. The
introduction of nursing and medical knowledge and ‘improvements’
in public health in the colonies
Times (1 December
89 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Coming home – Army nurses think of demobilisation’, Nursing Times (16 February 1946): 127.
90 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Nursing goes forward’, Nursing Times (17 November
1945): 751. Italics in the original.
91 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: For the good of all’, 41–2.
92 Starns, Nurses at War, 150.
93 Karen Flynn, ‘Proletarianization, professionalization and Caribbean immigrant nurses’, Canadian Woman Studies 18, 1 (1998): 57–60; Julia Hallam,
Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London
. And the French, strengthened after
fiscal reform and through retention of the most lucrative of the slave
colonies, St Domingue, began to challenge Britain’s control of the
Caribbean slave trade. Finally, nationalist unrest in Ireland served to
remind the British state that its oldest and nearest colony continued to
be a source of real concern. 32
For many, these events flowed inevitably from the logic
shift in the
response of British governments to settler demands for local control of
areas in those colonies where considerable numbers of British settlers
congregated. Undoubtedly India with its riches constituted by far the
most important of Britain’s possessions, with the Caribbean
Islands perhaps second. Yet by the mid-1830s the sites of White
occupation, where the British sought to form permanent
Source : Report of the Ministry of Health for the Year Ended 31st December,
1963 (London: HMSO, 1964), pp. 134–51.
The Caribbean was another consistent source of nursing labour for Britain,
both before independence and after, with Jamaica the largest single contributor. By the end
of 1965 between 3,000 and 5,000 Jamaican nurses were at work in British hospitals. In 1977,
8 per cent of all
1980s was exporting biological products (including
vaccines, mainly for rabies) to fifteen countries in the Caribbean and Central
and South America. Domestic vaccine production was a political priority,
because politicians saw that imports were expensive and also because national
security dictated protecting public health. ‘Artisanal’ procedures
for making vaccines were replaced by industrial methods of production, for
which Mexican as well as
Zealand and the Caribbean’. PhD thesis, University of
Melbourne, 1998, p. 174.
Grey to Sir John Pakington, 1852, British
Parliamentary Papers , Correspondence and Papers Relating to the
Administration of the Colony and Other Affairs in New
The expansion and significance of violence in early modern
‘“The Disease of Writing”: Ganda and Nyoro Kinglists in a Newly Literate World’, in
J. Miller (ed.), The African Past Speaks: Essays on Oral Tradition and History (Folkestone,
37 L. Mphande, ‘Heroic and Praise Poetry in South Africa’, in F. Abiola Irele and S. Gikandi
(eds), The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature, vol. 1 (Cambridge,
38 For example, M. Last, The Sokoto Caliphate (London, 1967).
39 LMS Central Africa, Incoming, Box 3: Southon to Thomson, 28 March 1880, encl.,
‘History, Country and People of Unyamwezi’.
Cultures of enquiry in the eighteenth-century British world
previous generations. As
botanic gardens, some long-established, gathered seeds from the
Caribbean, the East Indies and Australia to cultivate in British soil,
paradoxically, the world seemed increasingly knowable and exponentially
variegated in its natural wonder.
Household labour, space, materials and things
Domestic work was constant and
larger households contained one or more