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Gene-expression profiling in early-stage breast cancer
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

(Moreira 2011: 1334 ), with the entitlements and ‘moral worth’ of patients forming part of the evidence that stakeholders mobilise alongside practitioners’ and regulators’ responsibilities to deliver value for money for the health service as a whole (Moreira 2011: 1338 ). As Abraham ( 1995 ) and Davies and Abraham ( 2013 ) have shown, pharmaceutical companies influence regulatory processes affecting their products, including via funding clinical trials and working with regulators to speed up the approvals process. However, research has also shown

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

with CDSs and regulators allowed financial institutions to set aside less capital if they had bought such protection. That alone was a major reason for the increased demand for credit default swaps. In a market in which CDSs are often sold and resold amongst parties, there are risks. Buyers may not be as financially sound as they should be to cover the obligation when there is a credit event, especially without collateral. To take account of this, the New York Federal Bank advised counterparties to inform their trading partners when the contract

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Science, activism, and policy concerning chemicals in our bodies
Phil Brown, Vanessa De La Rosa, and Alissa Cordner

so far provide us with an overview of toxic trespass. With that in hand we now turn to a case study of a major new set of chemical contaminants, a case that shows the many intersections between environmental activism, scientific discovery, and the many social, political, and economic factors that are central to chemical hazards. Case study: per- and polyfluorinated compounds PFAS are a class of chemicals that has become a contaminant of concern for residents and activists, regulators, and many industry representatives due to its persistence, widespread exposure

in Toxic truths
Jonathan Michie

largely on those grounds that the RPC judgement went against the OFT.15 Conclusions This chapter has identified three peculiarities of the economics of professional football. This triad of peculiarities suggests the need for multiple forms of regulation. Incentive conflicts between clubs, and between clubs and their league (where leading clubs can credibly threaten to leave to form a rival league) undermine the capacity of leagues, particularly the Premier League, to be selfregulating and suggest the need for an independent regulator. Incentives for 142 Jonathan

in Market relations and the competitive process
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
Duncan Wilson

–Patient Relationship’, p. 777. 186 Richard Horton, ‘Why Is Ian Kennedy’s Healthcare Commission Damaging NHS Care?’, Lancet, Vol. 364 (2004) pp. 401–2 (p. 401). 187 Ibid, p. 402. 188 Ibid. 189 Ian Kennedy, ‘Setting of Clinical Standards’, Lancet, Vol. 364 (2004) p. 1399. 190 Ibid. 191 Charlotte Santry, ‘Healthcare Regulator Longed for Government’s Embrace’, Health Service Journal, 12 November 2008, available online at (accessed 6 February 2014). 192 Charlotte Santry, ‘Sir Ian Kennedy Champions “Fearless” NHS Regulator’, Health Service Journal, 12 November 2009

in The making of British bioethics
New Labour and public sector reform
Eric Shaw

Labour and public sector reform 153 about the role of the state as regulator rather than provider, opening up healthcare for example to a mixed economy under the NHS umbrella . . . We should also stimulate new entrants to the schools market. (Blair July 2003) The next section outlines the four main prongs of NLM. 3 Performance management Performance management can be defined as ‘a move towards more explicit and measurable (or at least checkable) standards of performance for public sector organizations, in terms of the range, level and content of services to be

in In search of social democracy
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

, which lobbied regulators and government to improve access, including supporting a 2008 court case by a group of ‘Herceptin Heroes’ which resulted in the regulator having to conduct further consultation to formulate policy. Through these practices the side-effects of drugs such as Herceptin, which include, among others, cardiac toxicity, are downplayed in favour of its promise of longer lives for patients. As with Gleevec, new multinational consortia were developed to establish viable trials for the drug. HERA (HERceptin Adjuvant) was initially run

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Monstrous markets – neo-liberalism, populism and the demise of the public university
John Holmwood and Jan Balon

by the dominance of corporate interests over the state. Dewey argued that the first undermines the individual as surely as it seeks to set the individual free. This is because the ruling idea of liberalism is that of the individual free of associations, which is linked with the idea of the ‘naturalness’ of economic laws (embodied in market exchanges). It is precisely the ideology of liberal individualism, according to Dewey, that suggests that the market can replace the state as the regulator of social life, but leaves the individual vulnerable to the outcomes of

in Science and the politics of openness
Oonagh McDonald

bankruptcy process was completed, there was no further investigation of the Examiner's conclusions about the ‘colorable’ claims. None of these have been investigated further by any court or by the regulators, and no action has been taken against any of the four named individuals. This chapter explores the main issues cited as the cause of the bankruptcy and the reasons why Lehman conducted its business in the way it did without any proper oversight. The Examiner pointed out that Lehman's business model was not unique; all of the major investment banks

in Lehman Brothers
Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research
Elizabeth Hoover

cadmium. A month later, tests found PCBs in the 220-­foot-­deep private well of Raquette Point residents Tony and Ella Cole. Rather than hearing directly from regulators, Mohawks found out about these tests through articles in the local newspaper. NYSDEC blamed the breakdown in communication on the fact that although the GM plant is adjacent to Akwesasne, the plant is in Saint Lawrence County, which is in NYSDEC Region 6, while Akwesasne is in Franklin County, in NYSDEC Region 5. This failure of both industry and regulatory agencies to communicate with the community

in Toxic truths