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Manu Samriti Chandler

overtook the White population’. 15 E. D. Rowland, ‘Census of British Guiana, 1891’, Timehri , 6 (June 1892), 56, quoted in Mary Noel Menezes, British Policy towards the Amerindians in British Guiana, 1803–1873 (Georgetown: Caribbean Press, 2011), p. 42. 16 Frank B. Wilderson III, Red, White & Black: Cinema and the Structure of U. S. Antagonisms (Durham: Duke University Press, 2010), p. 5. 17 For Wilderson, writing in the context of the United States, it is the Black American who exists in antagonistic relationship to the human, while ‘[t]he Red

in Worlding the south
Laura Chrisman

immediate reasons as Parry, namely, offering a critique of Gayatri Spivak’s work for the ways it structurally excludes voices from certain parts of the world from being heard. Several years ago I published an article in Critical Quarterly, in which I argued that Spivak’s reading of Jane Eyre, particularly her contention that the Caribbean Bertha Mason’s death-by-fire required to be read in the context of colonial contests over Indian practices of sati, reflected an Indiacentrism found elsewhere in her work.6 I questioned the political effect of granting colonial

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Shirin M. Rai

, held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 15 to 17 September 1997. Its purpose was to share experiences and lessons learned between and among bilateral and multilateral organizations about mainstreaming for gender equality as a crucial element in the transformation of the development agenda. At the national level, institutions set up for the advancement of women would be the main mechanisms through which mainstreaming would be pursued. In 1998, DAW, in collaboration with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, organized an expert group meeting on

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Philip Nanton

the latter part of the twentieth century a legitimate, if protected, trade in banana growing, which was equally popular with small as well as large farmers, became increasingly uneconomic as British and European Union subsidies to the eastern Caribbean were dismantled as a result of World Trade Organization regulations. From around 9,000 registered banana farmers in St Vincent in the early 1990s, who

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
An instituted economic process approach
Mark Harvey

, 1986, p. 25).2 The circumnavigation continued until it reached the Atlantic islands of Madeira under Portuguese rule, before being first taken to the Caribbean and Brazil in the early sixteenth century, then, taking its return trip across the Atlantic to Europe, to begin a revolution in human diet. In very broad historical terms, there have been successive configurations of production, distribution and consumption of sugar. The Arabic, Mediterranean-based production regime supplied a luxury good at high cost to the aristocratic and royal European elites during the

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
Raiding war and globalization in the early modern world
Brian Sandberg

could be accused of the crime of piracy. Privateering and piracy research has often focused on Caribbean buccaneers as freebooters, yet maritime raiding could be highly organized and expansive in this period. The Uskoks developed ‘raiding economies’ that altered commercial patterns in the Adriatic Sea in the sixteenth century.64 Meanwhile, maritime raiding became pervasive in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, East China Sea, and the Sea of Japan. Adam Clulow demonstrates that the Japanese port of ‘Hirado was at the centre of a great wave of Sino-Japanese piracy’ in

in A global history of early modern violence
Laura Chrisman

. Said’s is the most ambitious and methodologically eclectic of the three works, concerned as it is with the novel’s dynamics of spatial movement, its ideological systems of morality and aesthetics, its characters’ trajectories and its materialist contextualisation through contemporary Caribbean political and economic processes. At the same time Said pursues an argument about the function of Austen’s novel in enabling subsequent material practices of imperialism. This ambitiousness contributes an admirably broad cultural understanding of imperialism. It also creates

in Postcolonial contraventions
The effects of gender, households and ethnicity
Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith, and Paola Villa

women, a different pattern revealed itself: white British and Caribbean young women were more successful at finding work than was the case for young white British and Caribbean men – they were the least successful at integrating into employment in the UK. Young Caribbean men raised in two-earner households were more likely to be NEET compared to their white British counterparts. Young Caribbean men do not gain from the advantage of having both parents in employment. This may in part be due to difficulties in transferring dominant cultural capital Social

in Making work more equal
Collective violence in colonial Spanish
Anthony McFarlane

settlers were generally more likely to go to war with indigenous peoples than with Spanish colonials. Even in the eighteenth century, when war between European powers increasingly spread across the Atlantic, Spanish America was far less exposed to the destructive effects of war than the British and French colonies in North America and the Caribbean. Concentrated mainly in the continental interiors of North and South America, most of Spanish America’s peoples were safely insulated from the effects of external attack, thanks to the protections of geography and the

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
Arthur B. Gunlicks

), Benelux, and the Caribbean Community are examples of contemporary confederations. The twenty-three federations contain about 2 billion people or 40 percent of the world population. 1 India alone has almost a billion people, and most of the other billion come from the United States, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, and Germany. Many of these federations also cover very large territories, for example, Australia, Canada, Brazil, Russia and the United States. There are five federations in Europe: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Spain and Belgium. Some of the twenty

in The Länder and German federalism