representations in the mind, via the infant’s everyday experience and interaction with objects. It was only behaviourists that challenged this theory, but as they had no replacement model for the development of subjectivity, all they could offer were criticisms rather than an alternative. However, by the 1960s, shifts began to take place that encouraged the development of new theories of
This book provides an account of the University of Manchester's struggle to meet the government's demands for the rapid expansion of higher education in the 1950s and the 1960s. It looks at the University's ambitious building programme: the controversial attempts to reform its constitution and improve its communications amid demands for greater democracy in the workplace, the struggle to retain its old pre-eminence in a competitive world where new ‘green field’ universities were rivalling older civic institutions. The book tells the story, not just from the point of view of administrators and academics, but also from those of students and support staff (such as secretaries, technicians and engineers). It not only uses official records, but also student newspapers, political pamphlets and reminiscences collected through interviews.
Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies. That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.
2 Ian Ramsey, theology and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new, it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief. Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in
and more people made more and more insistent demands for reform – a keyword for the 1960s. Especially the younger generation did not feel at home in an order where older men held all the important positions of power. As an 1 Dynamische Zeiten: Die 60er Jahre in den beiden deutschen Gesellschaften, ed. by Axel Schildt, Detlef Siegfried & Karl Christian Lammers (Hamburg, 2000); Schildt & Siegfried, Deutsche Kulturgeschichte, pp. 179–244. Other important interpreters of the history of the Federal Republic use a similar vocabulary: In Die geglückte Demokratie
with specialist labour, a growing care team, and laboratory technologies. The concessions and divisions on which the NHS had been initially built, however, meant that regional organisation of clinic services, whilst much prized by doctors and the leading diabetes patient association, failed to take place. Furthermore, hospital care began to face serious challenges during the 1950s and 1960s. Shifting understandings of diabetes, rising patient loads, and resource constraints within the NHS encouraged clinicians to look beyond hospital management. Early innovations in
1950s. The new autism psychologists wanted to define ‘social impairment’ and demand educational rights, and they did not want to be dictated to by medical agencies, or social service agencies who were constructing their own understandings of social deprivation and policy intervention. Since the 1960s, policy towards childhood autism in Britain has been almost wholly managed via the education system, with
a preface to books on bioethics or applied philosophy. These participant histories portrayed bioethics as a response to the unprecedented moral dilemmas and public concerns raised by new developments in medicine and the biological Introduction 5 sciences during the late 1960s and 1970s. One bioethicist states, for example, that ‘when biomedical sciences became capable of things previously unimaginable (like organ transplantation or artificially sustaining life), bioethics was invented to deal with the moral issues thus raised’.25 The authors of these
simplifications: he ‘grew up with this idea that it was important to look inwards and not always define an external enemy… We must examine ourselves, examine our own weaknesses’. 19 ‘Tell me who to kill’ in In a Free State (1971) might be read as a story à thèse about Naipaul’s sense of the complicatedness of the ‘race issue’ in England of the 1950s and 1960s. The unnamed first
particular, the term emerged in the 1950s and early 1960s as interpreters of American religion clashed over the authenticity of the so-called ‘post-war religious revival’ and the shape of the religio-political future. Although many of these commentators argued that the moral shallowness and consumerism of much post-war religiosity reflected a secularizing impulse within the faith traditions themselves, other observers contended that what looked like secularization actually signalled the emergence of a new phenomenon, ‘civil