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American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30
Winifred C. Connerton

represented America in so many different ways. US international expansion was not limited to the Caribbean and Pacific territories obtained in the Spanish–American War. In fact, the US population was ambivalent over the benefit of colonial occupation, as was the government, and most territories were released to their own management shortly after the conclusion of the Second World War.48 Despite the decline in US colonial presence, the US influence continued to spread through charitable aid and benevolence organisations. Ian Tyrrell suggests this was a distinctly American

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet
Sue Hawkins

thinkers were trying to reconcile post-Enlightenment views on the equality of man, justice and ‘Natural Law’, with heightened levels of imperialism throughout Europe and America which had resulted in colonisation of large parts of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Simultaneously, Western medicine and nursing were undergoing rapid and revolutionary developments in techniques and technology, together with a more scientific understanding of disease, hygiene and sanitation. The introduction of nursing and medical knowledge and ‘improvements’ in public health in the colonies

in Colonial caring
Jane Brooks

Times (1  December 1945): 801. 89 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Coming ­home – ­Army nurses think of demobilisation’, Nursing Times (16 February 1946): 127. 90 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: Nursing goes forward’, Nursing Times (17 November 1945): 751. Italics in the original. 91 Anonymous, ‘Editorial: For the good of all’, 41–2. 92 Starns, Nurses at War, 150. 93 Karen Flynn, ‘Proletarianization, professionalization and Caribbean immigrant nurses’, Canadian Woman Studies 18, 1 (1998): 57–60; Julia Hallam, Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional Identity (London

in Negotiating nursing
Ana María Carrillo

1980s was exporting biological products (including vaccines, mainly for rabies) to fifteen countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America. Domestic vaccine production was a political priority, because politicians saw that imports were expensive and also because national security dictated protecting public health. ‘Artisanal’ procedures for making vaccines were replaced by industrial methods of production, for which Mexican as well as

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and the vaccine had been used as far afield as the British and Spanish Caribbean and other European colonies. 9 New contributions to yellow fever research by the Italian bacteriologist Giuseppe Sanarelli heightened the competition to discover the real germ and the right cure. Sanarelli was invited to run the Institute for Experimental Hygiene, inaugurated in

in The politics of vaccination
Bonnie Evans

population of 6.6 million included more than one in six people born outside the UK, including 634,000 from Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. 6 This growing international community was of interest to many child psychiatrists. Furthermore, increasing numbers of doctors from the New Commonwealth were also immigrating and this encouraged debate within the medical community itself. Aubrey

in The metamorphosis of autism