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Arthur B. Gunlicks

, Swabia, Bavaria, and Lorraine – which included the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg on today’s map). They did not, however, prove to be durable territories. Election of kings by the nobility in the Carolingian Empire was a Germanic influence that complemented the Roman administrative institutions adapted to the local conditions. This meant that the king was more primus unter pares, and that the kingdom represented a central authority versus particularistic tendencies.2 The empire followed this tradition of election in the selection of emperors by the stem dukes

in The Länder and German federalism