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Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

; Smith, 2014] . Likewise, French, Portuguese and South Africa interference in the conflict was undertaken with the goal of destabilising Nigeria and weakening its influence in West Africa [ Omaka, 2019 ; Siebert, 2018] . The third element of this story is the on-going transition from empire to the postcolonial era. That change manifested itself in different ways. The Africanisation of the Nigerian Catholic Church, for example, changed the role that expatriate missionaries

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

6 The nation in social practice II Language, education and the Catholic Church The language question Many writers argue that language is one of the distinguishing aspects of a nation. Eugene Hammel, for instance, suggested that in the Balkans, linguistic and religious identification are the primary sources of nationality.1 Attempts to form a codified language for the Southern Slavs were a cornerstone of the Illyrian movement in the nineteenth century and both Yugoslav states tried to enforce a standardised state language as a means of avoiding the potentially

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

:47 Introduction to emigration within the Catholic Church, to which about another fifth to a quarter of eighteenth-century migrants nominally belonged, are more difficult to discern. If Miller’s assertion that the majority of these early Catholic migrants were ‘rootless’ holds true, however, then it seems unlikely that their removal caused their clergy a great deal of practical trouble or mental anguish.8 Outward migration in the nineteenth century was a different matter. By 1815, Ireland’s population had expanded to almost seven million, more than double what it had been only a

in Population, providence and empire
Nils Freytag

era of Enlightenment holds true outside educated society. 6 The Catholic Church and state administration were confronted time and again with petitions and queries regarding witchcraft and magic, which contain many differing views and interpretations. The opinions of the acting parties will be the subject of the following discussion, which analyses the intentions of the medical profession and the state administration, the reaction of the Catholic

in Witchcraft Continued
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
Sarah Roddy

unrelated phrase – ‘British empire’.2 Yet as many historians of Ireland, its diaspora and particularly the Irish Catholic Church have noted, the existence of a peculiarly Irish ‘spiritual empire’ was widely spoken of even as the country’s ports remained choked with emigrants. This concept, normally involving the perception of a special, God-given emigrants’ ‘mission’ to spread the faith in whatever part of the world they settled, is somewhat problematic given the practical limitations explored in chapter three. Nevertheless, as a continually employed explanation of Irish

in Population, providence and empire
Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia
David Bruce MacDonald

atrocities. The purpose behind this onslaught of subjective and emotive propaganda was clear – it buttressed Serbian arguments that the war was forced on the Serbian people. The Serbian Orthodox Church and its parishioners had been brought to the ‘verge of annihilation’.81 That this work appeared in 1994, after countless attacks on the Serbs in the international press for their destruction of Catholic churches and mosques, was no coincidence. Obviously Serbian churches were destroyed; but such one-sided portrayals were mirror images of Croatian publications. This even

in Balkan holocausts?
Jacopo Pili

Italians’ ancestral attachment to Catholicism, which was considered the core of many Italians’ system of values.67 As for anti-Anglican tropes, these existed in the Fascist press before 1935. In 1933, for example, Il British Politics, Economics and Culture in Fascist Discourse 55 Corriere della Sera published an article entitled ‘The Anglican Movement in Oxford Fails to Achieve its Goals,’ which described how many British believers were returning to the Catholic Church after the attempts to reunite the two churches, known as the ‘Movement of Oxford,’ had failed. The

in Anglophobia in Fascist Italy
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

and Two, clergy could influence would-be migrants 235 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 235 15/09/2014 11:47 Conclusion only in the manner of their departure; stemming the flow altogether was beyond even their divinely sanctioned power. Instead, such reports had their greatest impact in acting as grist to the mills of the Catholic Church’s opponents, whether Protestant evangelicals or lapsed Catholic anti-clericals. In another sense, however, the undertones of the Shinnors row illustrate the more favourable consequences of emigration for the Catholic Church. Despite

in Population, providence and empire
Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.

Regnar Kristensen

death of Beltrán Leyva and the disfiguration of his corpse could also have influenced how people view the afterlife of his soul. Before continuing with this analysis, I have to clarify that the idea of purgatory as a physical place is not part of the Roman Catholic Church’s doctrine; however, gang members (and others) often believe that it is a place, as the noun grammatically indicates. This adds a spatial dimension to the purification process in purgatory, which becomes crucial to the ‘lives’ of the ‘bone-trapped’ souls who cannot leave earth because of their ‘bad

in Governing the dead