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Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

:47 Introduction to emigration within the Catholic Church, to which about another fifth to a quarter of eighteenth-century migrants nominally belonged, are more difficult to discern. If Miller’s assertion that the majority of these early Catholic migrants were ‘rootless’ holds true, however, then it seems unlikely that their removal caused their clergy a great deal of practical trouble or mental anguish.8 Outward migration in the nineteenth century was a different matter. By 1815, Ireland’s population had expanded to almost seven million, more than double what it had been only a

in Population, providence and empire
Nils Freytag

era of Enlightenment holds true outside educated society. 6 The Catholic Church and state administration were confronted time and again with petitions and queries regarding witchcraft and magic, which contain many differing views and interpretations. The opinions of the acting parties will be the subject of the following discussion, which analyses the intentions of the medical profession and the state administration, the reaction of the Catholic

in Witchcraft Continued
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
Sarah Roddy

unrelated phrase – ‘British empire’.2 Yet as many historians of Ireland, its diaspora and particularly the Irish Catholic Church have noted, the existence of a peculiarly Irish ‘spiritual empire’ was widely spoken of even as the country’s ports remained choked with emigrants. This concept, normally involving the perception of a special, God-given emigrants’ ‘mission’ to spread the faith in whatever part of the world they settled, is somewhat problematic given the practical limitations explored in chapter three. Nevertheless, as a continually employed explanation of Irish

in Population, providence and empire
Jacopo Pili

Italians’ ancestral attachment to Catholicism, which was considered the core of many Italians’ system of values.67 As for anti-Anglican tropes, these existed in the Fascist press before 1935. In 1933, for example, Il British Politics, Economics and Culture in Fascist Discourse 55 Corriere della Sera published an article entitled ‘The Anglican Movement in Oxford Fails to Achieve its Goals,’ which described how many British believers were returning to the Catholic Church after the attempts to reunite the two churches, known as the ‘Movement of Oxford,’ had failed. The

in Anglophobia in Fascist Italy
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

and Two, clergy could influence would-be migrants 235 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 235 15/09/2014 11:47 Conclusion only in the manner of their departure; stemming the flow altogether was beyond even their divinely sanctioned power. Instead, such reports had their greatest impact in acting as grist to the mills of the Catholic Church’s opponents, whether Protestant evangelicals or lapsed Catholic anti-clericals. In another sense, however, the undertones of the Shinnors row illustrate the more favourable consequences of emigration for the Catholic Church. Despite

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Clementsson

religious and marital cases. 5 The Christian incest prohibition in a historical perspective All the major world religions, including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism, have regulated sexual relations between relatives in some way. 6 But the prohibitions developed in the Christian world appear exceptional in scope. The Catholic Church based its prohibitions on the Bible; but the text was vaguely

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940
Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.

Barbra Mann Wall

with many groups of women and men as they established hospitals and schools of nursing in Nigeria. Sisters combined religious commitment and medical science to relieve physical and spiritual suffering; indeed, they were bound by strong ties of gender, professionalism and religion. Nuns were strongly affected by the Catholic Church’s emphasis on women’s authority in the home and family; and when sisters ran hospitals and clinics, many focused on maternal care and children. They also recruited women for their religious congregations and engaged women as students in

in Colonial caring

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Rima D. Apple

. They trained nurses who wanted not only to work in healthcare but also to serve their country. Protestant missionaries set up hospitals and training schools on the island in part to undermine the position of the Catholic Church. Thus in this case, for better or for worse, nurses served to transform healthcare and society. In Australia, the goal was to ‘civilise’ the Aboriginals, who were described as ‘savages’. Aboriginal healthcare and midwifery practices were discounted. With the presence of plague in Hong Kong, British doctors and nurses insisted that only

in Colonial caring