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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

-based Field Day, poems like those of Seamus Heaney and Eavan Boland, plays like those of Brian Friel and Frank McGuinness, all enabled re-readings and re-imaginings to occur, and so paved the way for the new perspectives associated with the 1990s. The preceding decade witnessed increasing strains in the intricate relationship between the Catholic Church and the State, particularly over the ethics of family policy. These were very much a sign of what was to come in the following decade when many of the traditionalists’ victories were overturned. Conservative groups in

in Irish literature since 1990
Martine Pelletier

with the sacred, its paganism that has resisted all efforts at Christianisation, his own included. The Irish Catholic Church has sought to repress the pagan rituals of the ancestral Celtic culture, represented in the play by the Lughnasa festival and its bonfires and animal sacrifices, but in Ryanga, pagan rituals and ceremonies still permit a spiritual communion which does not deny the body. Jack’s tales of African customs – in which dancing, polygamy and love-children feature prominently – holds out an image of a world in which the sexual energy of women is neither

in Irish literature since 1990
Rachel E. Hile

of the false Sorceresse. 75 (26) The false sorceress, naturally, is the Roman Catholic Church, about whom more later. The pastoral frame story thus contains certain familiar conventions, such as the insistent sheep metaphors and imagery at the beginning and after the end of Willy’s monologue, as well as the movement from country to city and back again with news, as occurs in “September” of The Shepheardes Calender and in Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. Willy can tell Thenot about the events of the Plot and its foiling because he was in the city five days earlier

in Spenserian satire
Eric Pudney

sides in the debates between Catholics and Protestants. The Protestant reformers challenged the authority of popes and councils, which the Catholic Church insisted was beyond question. Catholic writers responded by pointing out that reliance on personal revelation or an individual interpretation of scripture required relying on one’s own, necessarily fallible, reasoning and intuition. Any such reliance on individual conscience, it was argued, led inevitably to relativism and, therefore, complete uncertainty. As a result, ‘it became a stock claim of the Counter

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Open Access (free)
Eric Pudney

devil. It is at this point that Shadwell mentions the Catholic Church, which he compares to the ‘religion’ of witchcraft. The final reference to the ‘Church of the Devil’, as a result, has a touch of ambiguity about it: the phrase seems to refer to witchcraft, but it might also refer to Catholicism. Witchcraft may not be real, but a ‘Religion of the Devil’ certainly is. While The Late Lancashire Witches is the source for many of the spectacular incidents in Shadwell’s play – witches transforming themselves into cats, disappearing hares, and so on – there are

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Eric Pudney

dead delights, in steed of reall contentment of the flesh’ (p. 122). 106 Cooper, p. 190. Witchcraft in Jacobean drama 171 Corruption is associated with the powerful, and the emperor who brings rest and ease is blamed for the eventual transformation of the virtuous early Church into the Roman Catholic Church, which Cooper, like many Protestants at the time, regards as the Antichrist. The warnings not to seek ‘the fauour of earthly Princes’, and to avoid ‘looseness and profaneness’ and ‘worldly pompe and glorie’,107 are frequently repeated; and while James is never

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Foregrounding the body and performance in plays by Gina Moxley, Emma Donoghue and Marina Carr
Mária Kurdi

high-profile scandals, the Catholic Church rapidly lost its long-held grip on the conscience and moral life of the people. Concurrently, in the world of the theatre the process of diversification that had begun earlier was gaining momentum, clearing as well as securing a space for the appearance and practice of an array of nontraditional approaches and experimental forms. Companies representing regional, local, and even quite specific interests related to class, gender or alternative sexuality provided a stage for playwrights becoming conscious that ‘Ireland is not

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Irish poetry since 1990
Jerzy Jarniewicz and John McDonagh

love your different self.11 While Durcan can be accused of over-stating the optimistic response to Robinson’s election, it serves as a useful marker for the emergence of a polyphony of voices on the poetic scene in the Republic. Durcan’s targets frequently include the Catholic Church along with what he perceived to be the creeping philistinism of Irish society. A critic can easily trace the contours of Ireland’s economic, social, cultural and religious development in Durcan’s satirical and surreal verse. What also marks him out for special attention is the fact that

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Representations of the house in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke
Lucy Collins

the beginning of the decade Mary Robinson was elected the Republic of Ireland’s first female president and her liberal pluralist perspective, together with a committed attachment to human rights reform and feminist causes, reflected the forward-looking attitudes of a younger generation. This was a decade during which long-running debates on divorce and abortion paved the way for new legislation that weakened the influence of the Catholic Church on matters of state and offered women more control over their private lives.3 This change marked a radical shift in how

in Irish literature since 1990
Jonathan Atkin

ingloriousness of war’. He described himself as a conscientious objector, though not on an official level, because his conscience was not of a religious nature and hence, he thought, would not be recognised by the Military Service Act. There had also been a price to pay for using experience as a tool of peace; he described the result of eighteen months of experience at the front for himself and his fellow soldiers as being as if they had all, ‘sold our souls to unreason, as converts do to the Roman Catholic church’.41 In the spring of 1919, the Nation observed that many

in A war of individuals