Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
; Smith, 2014] . Likewise, French, Portuguese and South Africa
interference in the conflict was undertaken with the goal of destabilising Nigeria
and weakening its influence in West Africa [ Omaka, 2019 ; Siebert, 2018] .
The third element of this story is the on-going transition from empire to the
postcolonial era. That change manifested itself in different ways. The
Africanisation of the Nigerian CatholicChurch, for example, changed the role that
achieving true freedom.
Joyce (and his literary alter egos from Stephen Hero to Stephen
Dedalus) runs the gamut of possible sources of respectability and
recognition, and finds them all wanting. The list includes the
colonial state, the CatholicChurch, Protestant proselytizers, the
Irish middle classes and revolutionary sects.
True freedom ultimately requires a liberated form
and the hierarchy of the CatholicChurch in Timor. Apodeti sought eventual integration with Indonesia, after a transitional period of some years during which the people of the two regions could ‘become acquainted with each other on the basis of freedom’ (Aditjondro, 1994: 2). UDT was a centrist party that began by favouring loose federation with Portugal, but also canvassed gradual transition to independence and finally proposed full autonomy within Indonesia, followed by an act of free choice. It was supported by tribal heads and the small urban bureaucracy
presence. Police, intelligence officers (Agence Nationale de Renseignement) and
administrators do not have a permanent post. The CatholicChurch, the hospital
and a school are the closest forms of institutional authority present, in which
the population has a direct input, even in decision-making processes. There is
an established payment scheme for teachers, nurses and doctors, who also
provide a loose form of authority. For instance, the women of the village built
Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
the maternity wing of the small hospital
dimensions, including visible and invisible orders, were understood to be interwoven in immanent as well as transcendent patterns of meaning (Tully, 1991).
Contemporary variations on natural law traditions may also have more in common with and be more open to the social, political and religious traditions of non-Western societies than social contract theory. They may, for example, suggest a variety of ways of constituting ‘universality’, from the dogmatisms often favoured by the magisterium (which guards doctrinal purity within the CatholicChurch) to