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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

-based Field Day, poems like those of Seamus Heaney and Eavan Boland, plays like those of Brian Friel and Frank McGuinness, all enabled re-readings and re-imaginings to occur, and so paved the way for the new perspectives associated with the 1990s. The preceding decade witnessed increasing strains in the intricate relationship between the Catholic Church and the State, particularly over the ethics of family policy. These were very much a sign of what was to come in the following decade when many of the traditionalists’ victories were overturned. Conservative groups in

in Irish literature since 1990
Martine Pelletier

with the sacred, its paganism that has resisted all efforts at Christianisation, his own included. The Irish Catholic Church has sought to repress the pagan rituals of the ancestral Celtic culture, represented in the play by the Lughnasa festival and its bonfires and animal sacrifices, but in Ryanga, pagan rituals and ceremonies still permit a spiritual communion which does not deny the body. Jack’s tales of African customs – in which dancing, polygamy and love-children feature prominently – holds out an image of a world in which the sexual energy of women is neither

in Irish literature since 1990
Foregrounding the body and performance in plays by Gina Moxley, Emma Donoghue and Marina Carr
Mária Kurdi

high-profile scandals, the Catholic Church rapidly lost its long-held grip on the conscience and moral life of the people. Concurrently, in the world of the theatre the process of diversification that had begun earlier was gaining momentum, clearing as well as securing a space for the appearance and practice of an array of nontraditional approaches and experimental forms. Companies representing regional, local, and even quite specific interests related to class, gender or alternative sexuality provided a stage for playwrights becoming conscious that ‘Ireland is not

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Irish poetry since 1990
Jerzy Jarniewicz and John McDonagh

love your different self.11 While Durcan can be accused of over-stating the optimistic response to Robinson’s election, it serves as a useful marker for the emergence of a polyphony of voices on the poetic scene in the Republic. Durcan’s targets frequently include the Catholic Church along with what he perceived to be the creeping philistinism of Irish society. A critic can easily trace the contours of Ireland’s economic, social, cultural and religious development in Durcan’s satirical and surreal verse. What also marks him out for special attention is the fact that

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Representations of the house in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke
Lucy Collins

the beginning of the decade Mary Robinson was elected the Republic of Ireland’s first female president and her liberal pluralist perspective, together with a committed attachment to human rights reform and feminist causes, reflected the forward-looking attitudes of a younger generation. This was a decade during which long-running debates on divorce and abortion paved the way for new legislation that weakened the influence of the Catholic Church on matters of state and offered women more control over their private lives.3 This change marked a radical shift in how

in Irish literature since 1990
Jonathan Atkin

ingloriousness of war’. He described himself as a conscientious objector, though not on an official level, because his conscience was not of a religious nature and hence, he thought, would not be recognised by the Military Service Act. There had also been a price to pay for using experience as a tool of peace; he described the result of eighteen months of experience at the front for himself and his fellow soldiers as being as if they had all, ‘sold our souls to unreason, as converts do to the Roman Catholic church’.41 In the spring of 1919, the Nation observed that many

in A war of individuals
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

persistent maleness in Scottish civic life that is problematic. Even now, there are very few women in top education posts, despite a majority of women in the lower echelons; the first woman High Court judge and the first Solicitor General were not appointed until 1996 and 2001 respectively; there have been no female Lord Advocates nor women Moderators of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland or, even less likely, women priests in the Roman Catholic Church. Finally, to use the word ‘emasculate’ to refer to what central government did to local government after 1979

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

apart, Ford will put them back together again (The New HumptyDumpty (1912) is one of the texts I examine). The displacement of primitive needs and their necessary reinstitution, as indicated late in the period by Vilfredo Pareto, is symbolised powerfully by the debate on women and religion: ‘It is a curious fact that while the Christian, and especially the Catholic, Church denounces amorous pleasures, it is from them in the main that it derives the metaphors through which it expresses manifestations of faith. The Church is the Bride of Christ [. . .] the vision of

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Coding same-sex union in Amis and Amiloun
Sheila Delany

richly signifying work. On the international level, the ecclesiastical reform movement initiated by Pope Gregory VII did not die when Gregory did in 1085, but intensified as the Catholic Church strove to increase its political power, social influence and wealth, especially vis-à-vis the secular state. To those ends it campaigned to purify the lives of its ministers. Homosexuality per se was not a major focus of the reform movement: simony and clerical marriage were the main targets. Nonetheless, Boswell suggests that from the mid-eleventh century, two orientations

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Rachael Weaver

courtier from the eighth century who went hunting one day in the Ardennes forest in the north-east of France. A stag suddenly turned to admonish him, and when a crucifix appeared between its horns Hubertus renounced hunting and joined the Catholic Church. Boria Sax notes that this event enabled Hubertus to ‘reconsider his way of life in a very intimate way’ and comments: ‘All animals … can lead us into other realms.’ 59 Wheelwright has no such conversion, but his unwavering commitment to the masculine authenticity of the hunt finds itself overturned in this London

in Worlding the south