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Global and local forms of resistance to golf course development
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

In this chapter we discuss golf-related protest movements, focusing on both global and local forms of protest activity. Much of our attention here is given to the Global Anti-Golf Movement, a ‘new social movement’ that emerged in the 1990s from the collaborative work of a collection of environmental groups in East Asia. In the view of the Global Anti-Golf Movement, golf tourism (especially in developing countries) displaces indigenous peoples from their land, unduly impacts on local resources, disperses toxins (e.g., through chemical spraying), and, in the end, funnels profits towards transnational companies and away from local communities. And while golf course developers, designers, and managers increasingly make claims regarding their ‘friendlier’ environmental practices, the Global Anti-Golf Movement sees many light-greening practices as mere ‘greenwashing’, and thus as disingenuous. When it comes to local protests, our attention turns mainly to original research we conducted on a resistance campaign in Menie, Scotland against a golf course proposed (and eventually built) by a group led by US businessman Donald Trump. This Scottish case is compelling for a number of reasons; what it tells us in large part is that protesters can (and do) take up their own range of tactics to present a persuasive case about golf’s sometimes-negative social and environmental impacts.

in The greening of golf
Jeremy C.A. Smith

tradition of civilisational analysis. I then move to explore a key phase of Japanese civilisation’s interactions. My strategy involves pushing the notions of inter-​civilisational interactions and encounters at work in Arnason, Bellah and Eisenstadt further by examining how deeper connections have influenced the coalescence of modern cultural and political thought. The phase I examine begins in the early Meiji period (1868–​1912) and ends in the 1920s. Echoing Duara’s analysis of East Asia, I submit that a ‘discourse of civilisations’ formed in Japan through intensive

in Debating civilisations
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

of global history. Since the formative phase of human expansion, nomads have also re-​stimulated civilisational bases at different points (Cox, 2002: 144). Sea-​bound movements were crucial (Gillis, 2013: 22–​4). Voyaging brought distant ancestors of Australian Aboriginal civilisation through South-​East Asia to the southern 83 Inter-civilisational engagement 83 continent. In the last primary migration, Lapita peoples consolidated the western Pacific and then spread to Fiji and Samoa before completing colonisation of the ocean basin by reaching the Polynesian

in Debating civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

Islamicate civilisation throughout South-​East Asia influenced state formation particularly in sixteenth-​ century Indonesia and Malaysia, miles from the armies of the Safavid Empire. Arnason analytically separates ‘meaning’ from socio-​culture. He posits historically received ‘multiple constellations of meaning’ (2003: 294) or (following Nelson) ‘cues’ (2003:  149–​57), which contour the cultural ground for interpretation, communicability, conflict, dissonance and reflexivity. ‘Culture’ fluctuates more than many other civilisational analysts think, according to Arnason

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

, 1985: 530–​3). The Dutch and the British stimulated naval development through the VOC and the English East India Company. This was no linear development; along with the French, both lost ground to Asian traders in the early eighteenth century, even with British consolidation in India. The international balance shifted decisively in the nineteenth century. Dutch power advanced in Java (though it was checked in South-​East Asia overall), French colonialism spread to and in Indochina and Egypt, and British influence expanded further in India, China and Singapore to a

in Debating civilisations
G. Honor Fagan

unemployment as national industries collapsed, but by the 1990s a new era of prosperity seemed to begin. Officially, the boom began in 1994, when, in an obscure European investment assessment bulletin, the US investment bank Morgan Stanley asked, perhaps tongue in cheek, whether there was a new Celtic Tiger about to join the family of East Asian tiger economies. So, the Celtic Tiger emerged just when ‘globalisation’ was beginning to make itself felt in earnest. This does not mean that globalisation produced the Celtic Tiger, whose origins lay, as we saw in the bare outline

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Jeremy C.A. Smith

which different paths of modern development were open and potential for broad international relationships was undecided. The Chinese order in East Asia 189 Conclusion 189 and the intercession of the West in the mid nineteenth century were contexts of encounters and inter-​civilisational engagement in which Japanese perspectives on civilisation were generated. Asia and the Pacific were often debatably represented in Japanese perspectives. Solidarity-​based versions of relations with Asia competed with expansionist and militarist ones, and ultimately failed to

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’
Jeremy C.A. Smith

civilisation and ‘barbarism’ was thoroughly conditioned by Europe’s historical experiences of the conquest of the Americas, the decline of Islamic civilisation, by colonial encroachment on South-​East Asia and growing domination of India and Africa and by intrusion into the Pacific. Throughout the development of the European semantics of civilisation, the range of meanings had accommodated a spectrum of possible connotations, ranging from the most relativist nuance through to schemes of universal societal evolution. In different periods, one current would often dominate

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory
Jeremy C.A. Smith

world (2012). In his analysis, South-​East Asia was part of the nexus of engagement from the demi-​millennium that inter-​ connected other worlds with the Pacific basin. The geography of Oceania, in this alternative view, is inhabited by diverse peoples with lengthy shared and conjoined histories. There is no definitive nucleus; instead there are many cultural centres of an older polycentric civilisation. The shared and conjoined histories are discontinuous, however, and one of the main forces of discontinuity is capitalist modernity. Two centuries of integration into

in Debating civilisations
From theory to advocacy
Andrea Boggio and Cesare P. R. Romano

benefits of scientific progress and its application’, together with the obligations of states to respect the freedom of scientific research and creative activity . . . ensure the protection of moral and material interests resulting from scientific, literary and artistic production . . . enhance cooperation at all levels, with the full participation of intellectuals and inventors and their organisations, in order to develop and implement recreational, cultural, artistic and scientific programmes. (art. 42) Finally, in South East Asia, the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration

in The freedom of scientific research