mentalities and social control. At another level, the
eighteenth century saw an increasing popular access to and engagement with
printed material. While the extent of the growth of literacy during the
Enlightenment is a matter of considerable debate, there is no doubt that there
was a publishing boom, and that it was partly inspired by a popular thirst
for literary knowledge. The rise of such printed formats as periodicals and
newspapers have been seen as instrumental in the spread of enlightened
knowledge across society. Yet as the work by Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo
is obviously the whole aim of the process, eliminating his or
her power or even a person may be an important aspect of the trial. However, I am
not only referring to the ‘witch’ or ‘witchcraft’, but to the whole situation of uncertainty which was labelled with the symbolics of witchcraft.
49 Nenonen, Noituus, taikuus, pp. 123–36.
50 Ulvila 11–12 September 1676. Bielkesamlingen, vol. 27: 53v, 54, NAS.
51 A. J. Greimas and J. Courtés, Semiotics and Language: An Analytical Dictionary (Bloomington,  1982), pp. 87–91 (disengagement), pp. 100–2 (engagement).