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The first child-witch in Rothenburg, 1587
Alison Rowlands

Hilgartshausen case was, in fact, the precursor of an increasing number of particularly problematic trials involving self-confessed child-witches dealt with by the councillors and their advisers in the seventeenth century. Their engagement with these cases had the long-term effect of deepening their concern about witchcraft and of intensifying their hostility towards what they increasingly came to regard as the archetypal witch-figure: the bad mother. Hans Gackstatt began telling a story of night-flying with his mother and a black, horned man in the late summer of 1587. He

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Slander and speech about witchcraft
Alison Rowlands

witches came off worst – which played an important part in shaping the council’s judicial engagement with witchcraft in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century and remained of some, albeit lesser, significance thereafter. Brosam v. Lautenbach and Immell Hans Lautenbach’s story of alleged witchcraft, which precipitated the Brosams’ slander suit and which he repeated to Wendel Ferg and Erhardt Schleeried, the councillors deputised to question him after his arrest, ran as follows. On 18 January 1561 he had been travelling home with several barrels of wine from

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
Agency and selfhood at stake
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

to analysis by traditional methods such as ‘historical realism’. 6 However, we are licensed to examine the documents for traces not merely of the interrogators’ knowledge or theory that shaped the proceedings, but also for the resistances and principles that shaped the contributions of the accused witch. Roper intended to do this, but was blocked from doing so with an open mind by the ideological engagements she brought

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

mean backing off from an engagement with the various interpretations of ‘the witch’ when the point of the exercise is to open up debate on precisely that issue. We use ‘witch’ for both men and women, with the gender specified as necessary for clarification. Despite the problems of modern English usage, this is consistent with early modern categories and usage. The second problem with the word ‘witch’ is more

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

, Barthélemy des Martyrs and the acclaimed archbishop of Milan, Charles Borromeo, as examples of the excellent Tridentine bishop, Jedin straightforwardly characterised this model as a pastorate imbued with sane doctrine, preaching and administrative zeal and personal virtue.5 This was the episcopal spirit of the Counter-Reformation, a powerful contributor to the fervour of action and engagement with the world that Outram Evennett identified as the fundamental characteristic of Catholic reform during the early modern era.6 With some significant exceptions, however, bishops

in Fathers, pastors and kings
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic
Éva Pócs

conflicts, litigation, perjury in inheritance debates, the breaking-off of an engagement, jilted lovers, breach of promise, the lover’s or the spouse’s jealousy, bad marriages, unfaithful husbands, divorces, abortion, murder (of a family member, which has not led to criminal prosecution perhaps due to the lack of evidence); theft (of money, corn, animals, clothes, bedclothes, food, jewels); denunciations to the authorities (for

in Witchcraft Continued
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
Ami Pedahzur

or suppress subversive elements. The ‘criminal justice model’, on the other hand, places the onus on the police forces while confining its actions to state criminal legislation, 3 as further elaborated by Crelinsten: In a criminal justice model, the rule of law is paramount, while in the war model, it is the rules of war that prevail. In the criminal justice model, it is the police who exercise the state’s monopoly on the use of violence. The rules of engagement, so to speak, involve the use of minimal force, which requires an exercise of

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Duncan Sayer

only two of the forty-nine weaponless burials had evidence of trauma. This result is significant, with a p- value of 0.04. It may be that joint disease, and osteoarthritis in particular, are evidence of the higher risk of injury among martially inclined males. At Deal, this situation might be an individual choice, a decision to participate in the masculine lifeways that related to battle, such as one-on-one engagement or weapons practice. Nonetheless, these numbers are very low with just seven individuals with trauma distributed across both weapon and weaponless

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Duncan Sayer

the whole scene away from the grave, or from the nearby settlement. This image conveys the physicality of the mortuary drama, and illustrates a multitude of ways that people could participate in the funeral events, at different levels and with different degrees of engagement or knowledge. How a corpse was dressed, which objects went into the grave or were withheld, how a corpse was prepared, whether it was cremated or inhumed, and how a corpse was laid out were all locally mediated decisions based on the expectations of mortuary participants. The result was a

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Open Access (free)
The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion
S.J. Barnett

performed in public) – were not acceptable: to avoid eclipse on this most central of Enlightenment issues, the philosophes had to claim their place in the sun. It is hardly a coincidence, therefore, that in 1762 – the same year as the Parisian Parlement’s decree against the Jesuits – Voltaire launched his campaign against the injustice visited upon the Calas family by the Parlement of Toulouse. The father of the Calas family, unjustly accused of murdering his son because of his engagement to a Catholic, was broken on the wheel. There can be no doubt that Voltaire

in The Enlightenment and religion