-speaking over monolingual ministers, because, he said, “those people
had souls which ought not to be neglected till they would learn English” (qtd. in Jones,
A True Relation, 44).
misses the spirit of Spenserian satire, which uses indirection and ambiguity to manage the risk of criticizing or even mocking people with real
political power. Bedell takes no risks with this poem, because the satire
targets a reviled out-group, EnglishCatholics and the subset of EnglishCatholic Gunpowder Plotters