so it is necessary to move beyond the typical generalizations found in the
history of medicine. Like the other contributors in this volume, this
chapter aims to explore the presence of magical elements in everydaylife
during the modern period, and thereby broaden the usual location of magical
practice in the medieval and early modern periods. 3 The chronological focus of the following
discussion is defined by two major
The two sides of provincial violence in early modern Burma
Michael W. Charney
episodes of violence, often including
those found in European accounts, can also be found in the indigenous sources.
Violence was an everyday part of living (and dying) in parts of early modern
Burma, and this violence appeared to increase in many areas of the kingdom as this
period progressed. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of violence per se in precolonial
Burmese everydaylife has not drawn much attention in the historiography. Nor
has anyone explicitly used precolonial violence as a measure of Burma’s transition
towards modernity. Instead, early modern Burma is seen as
Civilising Rural Ireland examines how modern Ireland emerged out of the social and economic transformation prompted by the rural co-operative movement. The movement emerged in response to systemic economic problems that arose throughout the nineteenth century and coincided with a wide-ranging project of cultural nationalism. Within a short space of time the co-operative movement established a swathe of creameries, agricultural societies and credit societies, leading to a radical reorganisation of rural Ireland and helping to create a distinctive Irish political economy. The work of overlooked co-operative experts is critically examined for the first time and reinserted into the process of state development. The interventions of these organisers, intellectuals and farmers built up key institutions that shaped everyday life across rural communities. The movement weathered war and revolution, to become an indispensable part of an Irish state infrastructure after independence in 1922. The strained relationship and economic rivalry that developed between Irish and British co-operators is also explored in order to illuminate the changing relationship between Ireland and the United Kingdom from an economic perspective. Civilising Rural Ireland will appeal to a wide audience interested in modern Irish history and readers are introduced to an eclectic range of personalities who shared an interest in co-operation and whose actions possessed important consequences for the way Ireland developed. The creative use of local and national sources, many of which are examined for the first time, mean the book offers a new perspective on an important period in the making of modern Ireland.
The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.
The National Health Service (NHS) officially ‘opened’ across Britain in 1948. It replaced a patchy system of charity and local providers, and made healthcare free at the point of use. Over the subsequent decades, the NHS was vested with cultural meaning, and even love. By 1992, the former Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson declared that the service was ‘the closest thing the English have to a religion’. Yet in 2016, a physician publishing in the British Medical Journal asked whether the service was, in fact, a ‘national religion or national football’, referring to the complex politics of healthcare. Placards, posters, and prescriptions radically illuminates the multiple meanings of the NHS, in public life and culture, over its seventy years of life. The book charts how this institution has been ignored, worshipped, challenged, and seen as under threat throughout its history. It analyses changing cultural representations and patterns of public behaviour that have emerged, and the politics and everyday life of health. By looking at the NHS through the lenses of labour, activism, consumerism, space, and representation, this collection showcases the depth and potential of cultural history. This approach can explain how and why the NHS has become the defining institution of contemporary Britain.
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson
community, the results
of industrial impairment were immediately obvious. Whether it was to the
Morning Chronicle correspondent in the 1850s, to the socialist missionaries in
the 1890s or to a Polish sociologist in the 1940s, the ubiquity of disability in
mining communities was immediately obvious, and an evident shock to such
individuals who visited mining communities for the first time.2 The inhabitants
of mining communities, of course, considered it a normal aspect of everydaylife and, apart from writers who looked to portray or communicate something
of the reality of
with public attitudes and everydaylife, and its
representations in consumerism and culture. This work can be brought into conversation with,
for example, exciting new historiographies of the NHS as a cultural, emotional, and sensory
space, which are developing rapidly. 41
While examining new terrain, certain narratives in this book support and
bolster the emphases of political histories of the NHS. One strand of this political
literature, supported in this collection, assesses tensions between the local and the
about customs, the postal service and more
discussion of coinage.6 On occasion, readers were invited to compare
these figures with more modern experiences. Elsewhere, Hume augmented his analysis with information about changes in the fabric of
The planting of hops encreased much in England during this reign.7
The first mention of tea, coffee, and chocolate, is about 1660.
Asparagus, artichoaks, colliflower, and a variety of sallads, were about
the same time introduced into England.8
Such accounts are hardly the material of a grand political narrative
Needham Papers, NCUACS 54/3/95 File A.624, Cambridge University
35 E. C. Laurence, A Nurse’s Life in War and Peace (London: Smith, Elder and
Co., 1912), p. 282.
36 ‘The Nursing Board: Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service’.
37 H. Dampier, ‘The treatment of “EverydayLife” in memory and narrative of
the concentration camps of the South African War, 1899–1902’, in N. Kelly,
C. Horrocks, K. Milnes, B. Roberts and D. Robinson (eds), Narrative, Memory
and EverydayLife (Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield, 2005), p. 188.
38 Dampier, ‘The