The context of exile:
Quitter la France est, pour un français, une situation funèbre.
(HonorédeBalzac, Le Cousin Pons)1
An independent-minded people, with a strong cultural awareness and
attachment to region, if not always to nation, the French have generally
made unhappy exiles. It has been their misfortune that the many crises
punctuating French history have compelled them to take refuge
abroad, especially in Britain, a land that is so ‘alike’ France yet so
‘different’.2 In the
wheels. Red spots here and there must have been blood stains.) Here Flaubert draws on the existing repertoire of images that were ingrained in the cultural imagination. Gustave Flaubert, L’éducation sentimentale (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1942), p. 169.
29 HonorédeBalzac, Correspondance (1832), R. Pierrot (ed.), vol. 1 (Paris: Garnier, 1960–66), p. 380.
30 Papayanis, Horse-Drawn Cabs, p. 64.
31 Félix Nogaret, Réflexions d’un patriarche sur les voitures dites omnibus ! (Paris: Leclerc, 1828).
32 Nogaret’s slim volume was well known and
detail in Chapter 1.
15 See in particular Nicholas Papayanis, Paris before Haussmann (Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004) and David H. Pinkney, Decisive Years in France 1840–1847 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986). See also Hahn, Scenes of Parisian Modernity.
16 HonorédeBalzac, Ferragus , in Histoire des treize (Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1988), p. 79.
17 Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, Paris as Revolution: Writing the Nineteenth-Century City (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994), p. 35
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction
, American, and European authors, including HonorédeBalzac, Charlotte Brontë, William Carleton, Cervantes, James Fenimore Cooper, Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Edgar Allan Poe, Walter Scott, and Jonathan Swift. 76
The narratological manifestations of Roche's bibliographic everywhereness
The remarkable material circulation of Roche's novels indicates the very real advantages to be gleaned from loyalty to Lane, even if Roche's motives for publishing with Minerva remain unclear. We may not currently know how much
, when Döblin was admitted into
the canon of world literature, taking his place alongside Joyce and Dos
Passos, it was not as a realist or naturalist but as a moderniser and
modernist.12 Hence in German literary circles Döblin is rarely compared
to his French literary forebears Gustave Flaubert, HonorédeBalzac and
Émile Zola. This is curious, all the more so since Döblin proclaimed once
in 1924 that the modern ‘European-American world’ was on the cusp of
a naturalist age.13
Among French literary historians, German naturalism is often regarded
as an imitation of
Fouinet, ‘ Un voyage en omnibus ’, p. 69. Italics in the original.
21 Lauster, Sketches of the Nineteenth Century , p. 9.
22 HonorédeBalzac, ‘ Histoire et physiologie des Boulevards de Paris. De la Madeleine à la Bastille ’, in Le Diable à Paris , 2 vols (Paris: Hetzel, 1845–46), vol. 2 (1846), p. 92.
23 Paris en omnibus. Guide familier dans le Paris de 1869 (Paris Ancien et Paris Nouveau) par un simple voyageur en omnibus, en chemin de ceinture et en bateau mouche indiquant les rencontres et les correspondances de ces divers modes de locomotion dans