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Kevin Harrison
Tony Boyd

’ national identities of ancient origin in their struggle with the Europeans. Nevertheless, colonial powers and their colonial boundaries moulded even their national identity. Appeals were made by some African and Arab politicians to identities that cut across nations, such as Pan-Africanism , Pan-Arabism and Pan-Islamism , often with little, or at most temporary, success. Usually ‘traditional’ nationalism was too powerful a

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Eşref Aksu

African states led by Cameroon, Liberia, Nigeria and Togo, which held a meeting in Monrovia on 8–12 May 1961. The ‘Monrovia group’ would soon include 22 African countries. These states were more moderate in their approach towards the Congo. In general, their insistence on pan-Africanism was not as ‘enthusiastic’ as that of the Casablanca group. 107 On 22 July 1961, the Congolese Parliament reconvened

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change