Divine destruction in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay
Andrew Borlik, ‘“More than
Art”: Clockwork Automata, the Extemporising Actor, and the
Brazen Head in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay ’, in Wendy
Beth Hyman (ed.), The Automaton in English RenaissanceLiterature (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011 ),
pp. 129–44, p. 130.
George Molland, ‘Bacon, Roger
. Bucolic and Pastoral from Theocritus to
Wordsworth, Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1990.
Paul J. Alpers, What Is Pastoral?, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Andrew McRae, God Speed the Plough. The Representation of Agrarian England, 1500–
1660, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Thomas K. Hubbard, The Pipes of Pan. Intertextuality and Literary Filiation in the
Pastoral Tradition from Theocritus to Milton, Ann Arbor, MI: University of
Michigan Press, 1998.
Ken Hiltner, What Else Is Pastoral? RenaissanceLiterature and the Environment, Ithaca,
Invisibility and erasure in The Two Merry Milkmaids
Wendy Beth Hyman (ed.), The Automaton in English RenaissanceLiterature (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), pp. 61–78; see
also Wolfe, Humanism, Machinery and RenaissanceLiterature ,
pp. 203–35. For a discussion of Talus and Renaissance
automata, see Sawday, Engines of the Imagination , p.
calls concepts of wholeness into
question, the place of such concepts in critical discourse on sixteenth-
and seventeenth-century literature remains curiously unaddressed.
Cynthia Marshall, for example, implies the pre-existence of a concept of
psychic wholeness in the suggestion that ‘a Renaissanceliterature of self-shattering’ offers readers and spectators
‘an experience of psychic fracture’. 12
post-Thatcherite) state. Thus censorship and criticism become
self-identical terms that can be juxtaposed in a stable opposition;
the critic is “opposed” to censorship.’6
14/10/02, 9:50 am
Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis
Of course, cultural materialists must oppose and expose, too,
reactionary standpoints on Renaissanceliterature and culture by
showing them to be politically motivated, thus revealing their
ostensible apoliticism as an ideological smokescreen. As the foreword to Political Shakespeare puts it, cultural materialism ‘does
Dollimore, ‘Art in a Time of War’,
p. 43. The emphasis is in the text.
On new formalism, see Marjorie Levinson,
‘What is New Formalism?’, PMLA , 122:2
(2007), 558–69; for new formalism and early modern
literature, see Mark David Rasmussen (ed.), Renaissance
, ‘Reading the Body: The Revenger’s Tragedy and the Jacobean Theater
of Consumption’, Renaissance Drama, 18 (1987), 121–48; Cavell, ‘“Who Does the
Wolf Love?”: Reading Coriolanus’, Representations, 3 (1983), 1–20; Britland, ‘Circe’s
Cup: Wine and Women in Early Modern Drama’, in A Pleasing Sinne: Drink and
Conviviality in Seventeenth-Century England, ed. by Adam Smyth (Woodbridge:
Brewer, 2004), pp. 109–25. For useful overviews of the field see Patricia Cahill, ‘Take
Five: RenaissanceLiterature and the Study of the Senses’, Literature Compass, 6
(2009), 1014–30; Holly
See O’Connell, The Idolatrous Eye ,
p. 141; Julia Reinhard Lupton, Afterlives of the Saints:
Hagiography, Typology and RenaissanceLiterature (Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1996 ), pp.
See Lupton, Afterlives of the Saints , p.
vs. “Menippean” have continued to develop the new-critical taxonomic
impulse by focusing on form and tone.
Instead of adding a new type of taxonomy, I want to bring to the study
of Renaissanceliterature more recent satire theorists’ approaches, which,
taken together, constitute what we might call a “social turn” in satire
studies, expressed most succinctly in W. Scott Blanchard’s definition of
satire as a “genre for the expression of social dissensus” (“Renaissance
prose satire,” 118). The decision to write general or indirect or direct
satire—and these should
not Spenser but Spenser’s own stated poetic forebears, especially Chaucer
and Skelton, but also, in passing, Mantuan. Drayton draws on late medieval bird satires, especially as developed by John Skelton’s Speke Parott, to
allude to Spenser without referencing him too directly. Dense networks
of allusions characterize almost all Renaissanceliterature, and poets use
these allusions, especially at times of anxiety, to create or clarify where
they are in the literary field, where they stand in, in Bourdieu’s phrase,
that “space of positions” (Bourdieu, “Field of