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Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

Since the end of the Cold War, NATO has been significantly reoriented and retooled across the board. This process of change has been captured under two main labels. Internal adaptation is NATO-speak for looking at how the institution works, and whether it can be made to work better and more effectively. The process has embraced the possibility of creating procedures and structures whereby European member

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Collaborating with James Baldwin on a Screenplay of Giovanni’s Room
Michael Raeburn

The author discusses his personal relationship with James Baldwin, recounting their collaboration on a film script for an adaptation of Giovanni’s Room.

James Baldwin Review
T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney

In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Baldwin, Racial Melancholy, and the Black Middle Ground
Peter Lurie

This article uses Baldwin’s 1949 essay “Everybody’s Protest Novel” to consider that literary mode’s corollary in the 1990s New Black Cinema. It argues that recent African American movies posit an alternative to the politics and aesthetics of films by a director such as Spike Lee, one that evinces a set of qualities Baldwin calls for in his essay about Black literature. Among these are what recent scholars such as Ann Anlin Cheng have called racial melancholy or what Kevin Quashie describes as Black “quiet,” as well as variations on Yogita Goyal’s diaspora romance. Films such as Barry Jenkins’s adaptation of If Beale Street Could Talk (2018) and Joe Talbot and Jimmy Fails’s The Last Black Man in San Francisco (2019) offer a cinematic version of racial narrative at odds with the protest tradition I associate with earlier Black directors, a newly resonant cinema that we might see as both a direct and an indirect legacy of Baldwin’s views on African American culture and politics.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
James Baldwin and Malcolm X
Mikko Tuhkanen

Taking its cue from recent scholarly work on the concept of time in African American literature, this essay argues that, while both James Baldwin and Malcolm X refuse gradualism and insist on “the now” as the moment of civil rights’ fulfillment, Baldwin also remains troubled by the narrowness assumed by a life, politics, or ethics limited to the present moment. In his engagement with Malcolm’s life and legacy—most notably in One Day, When I Was Lost, his screen adaptation of Malcolm’s autobiography—he works toward a temporal mode that would be both punctual and expansive. What he proposes as the operative time of chronoethics is an “untimely now”: he seeks to replace Malcolm’s unyielding punctuality with a different nowness, one that rejects both calls for “patience,” endemic to any politics that rests on the Enlightenment notion of “perfectibility,” and the breathless urgency that prevents the subject from seeing anything beyond the oppressive system he wants overthrown. Both thinkers find the promise of such untimeliness in their sojourns beyond the United States.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Robert J. Corber

The author reviews Barry Jenkins’s 2018 film adaptation of Baldwin’s novel, If Beale Street Could Talk, finding that Jenkins’s lush, painterly, and dreamlike visual style successfully translates Baldwin’s cadenced prose into cinematic language. But in interpreting the novel as the “perfect fusion” of the anger of Baldwin’s essays and the sensuality of his fiction, Jenkins overlooks the novel’s most significant aspect, its gender politics. Baldwin began working on If Beale Street Could Talk shortly after being interviewed by Black Arts poet Nikki Giovanni for the PBS television show, Soul!. Giovanni’s rejection of Baldwin’s claims that for black men to overcome the injuries of white supremacy they needed to fulfill the breadwinner role prompted him to rethink his understanding of African American manhood and deeply influenced his representation of the novel’s black male characters. The novel aims to disarticulate black masculinity from patriarchy. Jenkins’s misunderstanding of this aspect of the novel surfaces in his treatment of the character of Frank, who in the novel serves as an example of the destructiveness of patriarchal masculinity, and in his rewriting of the novel’s ending.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

innovation will remain elusive, to the greatest cost of vulnerable people and communities in crisis for which the system exists and proclaims to serve. The Definition Challenge There have been many different definitions of innovation used within the humanitarian response sector, along with attempts to develop a common language. It has been defined as ‘a means of adaptation and improvement through finding and scaling solutions to problems in the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

group in a way that resonates emotionally; third, this value-added information should illuminate a way forward; and, finally, there must be a clear moment when the individual can, through actions or choices, recalibrate their behaviour. This recalibration is measured, ‘and the feedback loop can run once more, every action stimulating new behaviours that inch us closer to our goals’ ( Geotz, 2011 ). Resilience, with its emphasis on constant adaptation, sits well with ideas of feedback and design. Social reproduction can be optimised by changing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

, 1816 – 23 . doi: 10.2105/AJPH.87.11.1816 . Levett , R. ( 1979 ), ‘ Development Education in Canada: A Grassroot Movement ’, Development Directions , 2 : 1 , 12 – 13 . Marchand , B. ( 1990 ), African Journey ( Hull, QC : Media-Sphere, Youth Editions ). Illustrations by Lucie Chantal, based on the television series of the same name, French adaptation: Aventure Africaine , https://archive.org/details/africanjourneyno0000marc (accessed 21 January 2021 ). Marshall , D. ( 2019 ), ‘ Concluding Reflections

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

evil. Perpetual peace is a moral force, which reveals most fully why liberalism has always been a sociodicy. And yet, even Kant had to concede that this vision of peace, in the end, belonged in the graveyard. We do not lack ideas about peace in the world; what we lack are ideas concerning resistance to the present. A resistance to the image of a world that continues to annihilate us on a daily basis. Presenting the claim of peace as a terrifying adaptation of Hieronymus Bosch is a meaningful start. Violence is an Assault on the Sacred Meaning of Life The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs