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Open Access (free)
Tuur Driesser

. Maps as objects 225 From critical to object-oriented cartography The critical cartography which arose in the 1990s (Crampton and Krygier, 2006) approach maps as texts (Harley, 1989), sign systems (Wood, 1993) and social constructions (Crampton, 2001). In response to the dominance of the communication model, which thought of maps purely as neutral tools to convey geographical information, critical cartography sought to demonstrate how these representations were in fact bound up with politics of power and knowledge. Thus, building on Foucault and Derrida (Harley, 1989

in Time for mapping
Exploring the real-time smart city dashboard
Michiel de Lange

11 From real-time city to asynchronicity: exploring the real-time smart city dashboard Michiel de Lange A plea for asynchronicity In a thought-provoking ‘design fiction’ exercise, design researchers Bleecker and Nova invert the discourse of instantaneity in urban computing and digital cartography (Bleecker and Nova, 2009). Urban new media tend to promote a speeding up of time: there is here a conspicuous arms race towards more instantaneity, more temporal proximity between events, people and places. Communication is promoted to be ‘just-in-time’; feedback to your

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Mapping times
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

depict space and design interfaces to communicate knowledge about space. Geographical Information Science focused upon spatial analysis. From its inception, the internet was conflated with spatial metaphors such as ‘cyberspace’ and its topology charted (see for example Dodge and Kitchin, 2001; Graham, 2013). Contemporary digital communication networks facilitate this compression of time and space by ‘flattening’ the world.5 Historians only began to deploy mapping technologies to investigate historical processes relatively late. This spatial fixation was critiqued from

in Time for mapping
Considerations and consequences
Thomas Sutherland

organicist conception of society as a living body irrigated by flows, whether material (communication routes or systems for distributing energy sources) or immaterial (financial flows, flows of information, or movements of symbolic diffusion)’ – which although not without its uses, smooths over the breaks, disjoints and dissymmetries that mark the globalised economy, and risks naturalising and even ontologising the myth of capitalism as a process of endlessly fluid expansion. Although I have written previously on the topic of fluidity as a theoretical and philosophical

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Digital photography and cartography in Wolfgang Weileder’s Atlas
Rachel Wells

contemporary artists’ experiments with photography’s nexus of time and space coincide both with philosophies about the shifting contemporary experience of space-time, and with radical changes in the experience of photography as a medium per se. David Harvey’s influential analysis has claimed that from the mid nineteenth-century, ‘capitalism became embroiled in an incredible phase of massive long-term investment in the conquest of space’ (Harvey, 1989: 264). The advent of new technologies, such as the telegraph, radio communication, and of course photography, ran alongside

in Time for mapping
Art and the temporalities of geomedia
Gavin MacDonald

ongoing stories are real challenges to cartography’ (Massey, 2005: 107). Two kinds of timelessness To complicate matters, some writers on geomedia are concerned that there is not one kind of atemporality at stake, but two; the closure of the map to past and future is paralleled by, and conflated with, a timelessness associated 142 Stitching memories with networked information and communication technologies (Farman, 2012; Graham, Zook, and Boulton, 2013). This second concept of atemporality can be found in prototype in Henri Bergson’s and Martin Heidegger

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in geomedia
Pablo Abend

– in the example, pagan and biblical history epistemologically and graphically encloses the map’s content within a circular space around the body of Christ. The navigational, by contrast, emphasises the performative character of the mapping as an open process, and at the same time, the involvement of the spectator is thus able to challenge static and linear models of cartographic communication that are based on unified and standardised ontologies. Turnbull (2007), for example, criticises ‘Western’ mapping practices for dismissing the local and navigational dimension

in Time for mapping
A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change over time
Cate Turk

and programming skills, as well as resources for quickly training newcomers to help map. Communication channels are well set up and those contributing to the map can make use of an interface that has been evolving through user Maps as foams 211 feedback. As a result, the HOT team was able to rapidly supplement existing maps of the affected areas (using pre-disaster satellite images from Bing maps) and then, in a second phase, map the extent of damage because they were granted access to post-disaster satellite imagery. This mapping project ‘bubble’ is well

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
The restructuring of work and production in the international political economy
Louise Amoore

interests of social groups within British firms. First, the lines of communication between employer and employee, historically represented by a ‘single channel’ of trade union-centred collective bargaining, are increasingly ‘dominated by the employer, with no independent representation of workers interests’ (Hyman, 1997: 314). There is a ‘representation gap’ (Towers, 1997) in hyperflexible state-societies that leaves six out of seven US workers, and two out of three British workers, without effective forms of representation at work. As a result, concerted negotiation has

in Globalisation contested
Open Access (free)
Back to the future
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

of Communication, 8: pp. 1765–1783. Verhoeff, N. (2012) Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Wilmott, C. (2016) Small moments, big data: Mobile mapping in everyday life. Big Data and Society, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951716661364. Wood, D. (1992) The Power of Maps. New York: Guilford Press.

in Time for mapping