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Brendan T. Lawson

’ agencies, INGOs and intergovernmental organisations. For a famine to be declared, a region needs to surpass three thresholds: 2 deaths per 10,000 people per day (crude death rate), 30 per cent of children are acutely malnourished and 20 per cent of households with extreme food gaps ( IPC Global Partners, 2019 : 9). If the region falls into the category of ‘famine’, the IPC system stresses the need for ‘immediate action’ from the international community ( IPC Global

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond
and
Catia Gregoratti

broadly conceptualised ‘as the increasingly organized and internationalized attempt to save the lives, enhance the welfare, and reduce the suffering of the world’s most vulnerable populations’ ( Barnett, 2013 : 379). Who (mis)represents women, and who besides states and intergovernmental organisations diagnoses deficiencies in a population and proposes schemes of improvement, are open empirical questions ( Marchand and Parpart, 1995 ; Li, 2007 ; Barnett, 2013

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps
,
Lasse Heerten
,
Arua Oko Omaka
,
Kevin O'Sullivan
, and
Bertrand Taithe

were unavailable for the Biafrans, perceived not as a self-determination campaign, but as a secessionist threat: the opponent that was accepted as a sovereign nation-state in intergovernmental organisations was Nigeria. This was the OAU [Organisation of African Unity] stance that determined the position of the UN and the wider diplomatic world, in which Biafra’s campaign could not thrive, even though the rhetoric of the campaign itself was so similar to decolonisation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Neil McNaughton

political integration unless the problem of the democratic deficit is tackled. Indeed, by 2002 Britain led the section of the EU which opposes further moves towards federation. 264 Understanding British and European political issues Should the Conservative party regain power, the prospects for closer union will become even more remote. It will require a major shift in public opinion for any British government to support a deeper union. So, for the time being Britain wants the EU to remain an intergovernmental organisation, rather than a supranational one. Having said

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

the French could accept. Several agreements were concluded in 1954 between the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and the Six. As part of these agreements, the Brussels Treaty Organisation was modified and extended. West Germany and Italy were accepted as members and a new intergovernmental organisation – the Western European Union (WEU) – was created. The agreements foresaw the termination of the occupation of West Germany and that country’s admission to NATO. As a counterbalance to the West German army, the United Kingdom agreed to station forces in the

in Destination Europe
What contribution to regional security?
Panagiota Manoli

, on the eve of the OSCE’s Istanbul Summit, he once more proposed an enhanced BSEC and called for greater balance between the interrelated economic, political and security issues facing the BSEC member-states: Perhaps the time is ripe for BSEC to strike an appropriate balance between economic cooperation and cooperation on regional security, and determine its place within the family of the other regional alliances and intergovernmental organisation in the new European architecture of the 21st century. These issues are increasingly relevant and BSEC’ s ultimate

in Limiting institutions?
Jon Birger Skjærseth
and
Tora Skodvin

for the formal endorsement of a Synthesis Report, in which the main conclusions of the reports from all the three WGs are synthesised). At WG and Panel Plenary levels, the IPCC is characterised by an unprecedented openness. While it is only national delegates (and scientists, in the endorsement of summaries at WG level) that have formal voting power in the IPCC, all NGOs and intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) accredited within the UN system can participate at IPCC meetings. At these levels, these meetings have never been closed to participants from these

in Climate change and the oil industry
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

emphasis on democratisation and poverty reduction. The Council of Europe in Strasbourg, founded in 1949, is an intergovernmental organisation working for ‘greater unity’ between its forty-four member states ‘for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress’. The Committee of Ministers (composed of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs or their Permanent Representatives) is the Council’s decision-making body. The Parliamentary Assembly is the organisation’s deliberative

in Destination Europe
Nico Randeraad

debate in the section devoted to the topic focused on establishing a permanent commission and the relationship it would have with participating states. There was no international model on which to pattern the commission. Intergovernmental organisations with the authority to make 119 chap5.indd 119 02/12/2009 12:15:05 States and statistics in the nineteenth century binding decisions were still beyond the horizon. The statistics system in the German Zollverein might have served as a model, except that everybody knew its organisation was very weak. A few of the

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Thomas D’haeninck
,
Jan Vandersmissen
,
Gita Deneckere
, and
Christophe Verbruggen

above the concerns of particular nations. The term ‘global’ is also associated with the growing importance of actors beyond governmental or intergovernmental organisations and agencies, for example the media, internationally influential foundations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and transnational corporations. 95 The work of contemporary players of ‘global’ stature such as the

in Medical histories of Belgium