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The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland
Author: Sarah Roddy

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

Francisco’s prominent ‘labour priest’ Peter Yorke forcefully impressed upon Maynooth’s Walter McDonald, when the latter visited America in 1900 – looked to Ireland and her church as to the ‘rising sun’; to them it was the revered monarch of an English-speaking Catholic kingdom.10 Though Yorke was chiding McDonald and the Irish church for not fully appreciating this fact, as Chapter Five demonstrated, it had in fact constructed and developed a powerful and widely accepted narrative of a ‘spiritual empire’ arising out of mass emigration. In that sense, the tensions the

in Population, providence and empire
The pastoral responses of the Irish churches to emigration
Sarah Roddy

Education in Dublin in 1842. Therefore, while the notion that mass emigration from Ireland began in the 1840s is certainly outmoded, it would seem that the formal, organised involvement of the Irish churches in the religious care of diaspora communities was largely a mid-nineteenth century phenomenon. Before then, for most Irish emigrants, it was an ambition realised only occasionally and sometimes almost incidentally. There were several spurs to this concert of new and renewed activity, but the pleas of the destination churches loomed large. These were often the

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

-way relationship between the sending society and the outflow. Specifically, it seeks to ascertain and compare how the Irish 1 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 1 15/09/2014 11:47 Introduction Catholic, Presbyterian and Anglican churches responded to sustained emigration from their congregations during the nineteenth century, and in turn how they were affected by it, and, just as importantly, how they believed themselves to be affected by it. The book therefore knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland – mass emigration

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
The predicament of history
Bill Schwarz

which historians are usually most reluctant to confront: the idea that in recovering these traditions of West Indian thought we ourselves, in Britain, might be able to think more creatively about our own historical situation. Or in other words, the overriding reason may be an intellectual one, drawing into question our own analytical procedures. In the middle decades of the twentieth century mass

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Philip Lynch

would uphold Britain’s ‘proud tradition of offering sanctuary to those who are fleeing injustice and wrong’. But this tradition of hospitality was now at risk – not from racism or an unwillingness to accept genuine refugees in Britain, but from a flawed asylum regime. The international system for dealing with refugees put in place by the 1951 Geneva Convention was no longer working effectively in a world of mass emigration – a view shared by the government. Hague claimed that up to 80 per cent of those claiming asylum had manifestly unfounded cases but few were

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Emigration and sectarian rivalry
Sarah Roddy

possibility of Ireland losing its majority Catholic status, of ‘the faithful [being] supplanted by the proselytised’, was widely entertained.36 It followed that mass emigration, as the main ongoing agent 153 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 153 15/09/2014 11:47 Population, providence and empire of such an outcome, had therefore to be resisted, condemned and lamented by Catholic clerical spokesmen. It was equally disingenuous, therefore, for Protestant commentators to claim that only a mercenary interest in retaining a steady stream of financial dues prompted priests’ dismay

in Population, providence and empire
Martine Pelletier

addicted to the most extravagant superstitions. A primeval people really’.37 Though he believes his widowed cousin ought to remarry, he has qualms about the suitability – both social and racial one surmises – of a possible union between Christopher and his housekeeper. Yet, his repulsion at what he construes as an inter-racial union and miscegenation is tempered by his admiration for Margaret’s physique: ‘Pity to see Kent vanish – if he does marry her. Bigger pity though if she were to be diluted. Wouldn’t it?’ (p. 34). Bringing to mind the mass emigration that resulted

in Irish literature since 1990
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
Angharad Fletcher

than the perception of danger. As plague spread, municipal leaders in Hong 47 Angharad Fletcher Kong fell increasingly under pressure to act decisively. Global scrutiny and the potential introduction of international quarantine rules threatened the colony’s economy, which depended on trade. This and the danger of mass emigration by the colony’s transient labour pool were enough to prompt extensive alterations to municipal systems. Cities like Hong Kong are of significance because, as imperial hubs of trade and transportation networks, they were amongst the first

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Crossing the seas
Bill Schwarz

need to take into account the collective experiences of early, mass emigration, from 1948 and through the following decade. The consequences of this experience of emigration were not confined to formally accredited intellectuals, to the poets and novelists alone. Decoding British culture came to be the necessary pastime of all who journeyed across the seas. The extent of the great postwar migration

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain