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Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

, development, deployment and integration across social fields. Among these are stakeholder groups (such as regulators, civil society representatives, designers, data scientists, tech entrepreneurs and experts in cybersecurity, intellectual property and data-protection law) with differing priorities, values and skillsets, and consequently different approaches to datafication. In the context of fashion, Wissinger (2018: 779) notes that her interviews reveal that ‘a laissez

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
From policy to law to regulation

This book explains the beginnings of net neutrality regulation in the United States and Europe, and some of the current debate over access to Specialised Services: fast lanes with higher Quality of Service (QoS). It examines the new European law of 2015 and the interaction between that law and interception/privacy. The book takes a deep dive into UK self- and co-regulation of net neutrality. In each of the national case studies, initial confusion at lack of clarity in net neutrality laws gave way to significant cases, particularly since 2014, which have given regulators the opportunity to clarify their legislation or regulation. The majority of such cases relate to mobile net neutrality, and in particular so-called 'zero rating' practices. The book compares results and proposes a regulatory toolkit for those jurisdictions that intend effective practical partial or complete implementation of net neutrality. It sets out a future research agenda for exploring implementation of regulation. The book outlines competition policy's purpose, referring to the exceptionally rigorous recent analysis of competition law suitability to regulate net neutrality by Maniadaki. Having analysed regulatory tools with little chance of success, it then examines what communications regulators actually do: regulating telecoms access based on the UK case study. The book considers whether zero rating poses a serious challenge to Open Internet use. It explores some of the wider international problems of regulating the newest manifestation of discrimination: zero rating. The book also considers the various means by which government can regulate net neutrality.

Open Access (free)
Christopher T. Marsden

here to stay, however watered down its principles, however complex its enforcement, however unreasonable or overzealous its defenders, or duplicitous its enemies. On 24 February 2016 I gave a presentation at the closed BEREC workshop on net neutrality, attended by national regulators and the European Commission, alongside Professor Barbara van Schewick, Dr Scott Marcus and Dr

in Network neutrality
Christopher T. Marsden

exception for small IAPs, or to permit further analysis of the type indulged in by the French regulator when analysing the Level3/France Telecom and YouTube/Free disputes. Finally, ‘[NRAs] should be required, as part of their monitoring and enforcement function, to intervene when agreements or commercial practices would result in the undermining of the essence of the end-users’ rights.’ Powers must

in Network neutrality
Christopher T. Marsden

process, as we saw in the case of the UK in Chapters 2 – 3 . While regulator Ofcom has been groundbreaking in its research into traffic management measurement, it has tried to solve neutrality problems with co-regulation. This process needs a brief definition, and while I have written extensively on the matter, here I use the term defined by Lord Justice Leveson in the 2,500-page report into ‘phone hacking’. He states

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

for the FRBNY announce that since the Barclays deal had failed, Lehman had to file for bankruptcy by midnight. Miller argued: ‘You don't realize what you're saying. It's going to have a disabling effect on the markets and destroy confidence in the credit markets. If Lehman goes down, it will be Armageddon.’ 5 He was right. Later in the course of the bankruptcy proceedings, he stated that he believed that the regulators could have stepped in, not necessarily to save Lehman, but to head off the meltdown that followed: ‘They totally missed it.’ He added: ‘When

in Lehman Brothers
Christopher T. Marsden

analysis of competition law suitability to regulate net neutrality by Maniadaki. Having analysed regulatory tools with little chance of success, I then examine what communications regulators actually do: regulating telecoms access based on the UK case study. This provides insights into how difficult net neutrality regulation will prove in practice, a subject to which we return in Chapter 6 and the concluding Chapter 8 . I then

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

prices of securities are continuously adjusted to reflect all publicly available information. Many argued that the dominance of the theory created the context in which the financial crisis occurred. The theory influenced market participants, central bankers and regulators alike. Central bankers believed that market prices could be trusted and that bubbles either did not exist or could not be identified before they occurred, or even that they were beneficial for growth. Regulators seemed to accept the need for ‘light touch’ regulation, in which the

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
January to September 2008
Oonagh McDonald

banks didn't want bank-type supervision from the Federal Reserve. They wanted to be regulated by the SEC, which had been their functional regulator for 70 years. 20 This does put the position as stated by Erik Sirri, Director of Market Regulation, Securities and Exchange Commission, in a somewhat different light, but does not undermine the basic point that proper regulation of the investment banks did not exist. In his testimony, Sirri pointed out that no regulator in the Federal

in Lehman Brothers
The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative
Eric Shaw

commodification of service provision. It still upholds a large public sector, but one increasingly permeated by market arrangements and a more commercial ethos. The Third Way prescribes for the State a major role in social life, but less as a direct provider than as purchaser and regulator. It would retain responsibility for guaranteeing access to services free at the point of delivery

in The Third Way and beyond