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Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

, development, deployment and integration across social fields. Among these are stakeholder groups (such as regulators, civil society representatives, designers, data scientists, tech entrepreneurs and experts in cybersecurity, intellectual property and data-protection law) with differing priorities, values and skillsets, and consequently different approaches to datafication. In the context of fashion, Wissinger (2018: 779) notes that her interviews reveal that ‘a laissez

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative
Eric Shaw

commodification of service provision. It still upholds a large public sector, but one increasingly permeated by market arrangements and a more commercial ethos. The Third Way prescribes for the State a major role in social life, but less as a direct provider than as purchaser and regulator. It would retain responsibility for guaranteeing access to services free at the point of delivery

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
Mark B. Brown

range of issues and types of participants in only some respects, while restricting them in others. Chapter 10, by Sarah Hartley and Adam Kokotovich, challenges the standard view of risk governance by disaggregating the riskassessment stage into different components. The authors argue that public involvement is necessary whenever regulators make choices about values, and they identify a need for value-laden choices in three components of risk assessment: risk-assessment guidelines, the process of conducting risk assessments and the use of scientific studies within risk

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Thom Davies

, may be won and lost by the crunch of code. If data is the new oil, when it comes to actual pollution, data also plays a vital role. The pollution data produced by multinational companies and environmental regulators is often at odds with the lived experience of frontline communities. In response, environmental justice activists have often attempted to record their own data about toxic hazards using a gamut of citizen science techniques. This is especially important considering that the burden of proof of DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 237 08/06/2020 15

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Science, activism, and policy concerning chemicals in our bodies
Phil Brown, Vanessa De La Rosa, and Alissa Cordner

so far provide us with an overview of toxic trespass. With that in hand we now turn to a case study of a major new set of chemical contaminants, a case that shows the many intersections between environmental activism, scientific discovery, and the many social, political, and economic factors that are central to chemical hazards. Case study: per- and polyfluorinated compounds PFAS are a class of chemicals that has become a contaminant of concern for residents and activists, regulators, and many industry representatives due to its persistence, widespread exposure

in Toxic truths
New Labour and public sector reform
Eric Shaw

Labour and public sector reform 153 about the role of the state as regulator rather than provider, opening up healthcare for example to a mixed economy under the NHS umbrella . . . We should also stimulate new entrants to the schools market. (Blair July 2003) The next section outlines the four main prongs of NLM. 3 Performance management Performance management can be defined as ‘a move towards more explicit and measurable (or at least checkable) standards of performance for public sector organizations, in terms of the range, level and content of services to be

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
Monstrous markets – neo-liberalism, populism and the demise of the public university
John Holmwood and Jan Balon

by the dominance of corporate interests over the state. Dewey argued that the first undermines the individual as surely as it seeks to set the individual free. This is because the ruling idea of liberalism is that of the individual free of associations, which is linked with the idea of the ‘naturalness’ of economic laws (embodied in market exchanges). It is precisely the ideology of liberal individualism, according to Dewey, that suggests that the market can replace the state as the regulator of social life, but leaves the individual vulnerable to the outcomes of

in Science and the politics of openness
Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research
Elizabeth Hoover

cadmium. A month later, tests found PCBs in the 220-­foot-­deep private well of Raquette Point residents Tony and Ella Cole. Rather than hearing directly from regulators, Mohawks found out about these tests through articles in the local newspaper. NYSDEC blamed the breakdown in communication on the fact that although the GM plant is adjacent to Akwesasne, the plant is in Saint Lawrence County, which is in NYSDEC Region 6, while Akwesasne is in Franklin County, in NYSDEC Region 5. This failure of both industry and regulatory agencies to communicate with the community

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

– is controlled by a series of regulations aimed at preventing water, air and soil pollution. Regulatory pressure creates corporate attention, which represents the first step towards any conscious climate strategy. Pressure further induces unilateral company targets as well as abatement efforts. Neglecting regulation exposes oil companies to economic risks. A proactive strategy may reduce this risk: ‘the more the oil industry opts for a ‘wait and see’ approach, the more it is likely to attract the attention of regulators’ (Estrada et al., 1997: 16). Thus, companies

in Climate change and the oil industry