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Friends or foes?
Roberto Baldoli and Claudio M. Radaelli

and more generally evidence-based approaches to decision-making establish both rights and obligations: obligations for the regulators or lawmakers, and rights for those affected groups, professions and citizens who want to make their voices heard, and have the right to know about the empirical foundations of a regulatory proposal. The normative stance (i.e. what ought to happen, not necessarily what happens) of impact assessment is the following: in the absence of evidence and the possibility of discussing and criticising it, there is no social authorisation for

in The freedom of scientific research
Gene-expression profiling in early-stage breast cancer
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

(Moreira 2011: 1334 ), with the entitlements and ‘moral worth’ of patients forming part of the evidence that stakeholders mobilise alongside practitioners’ and regulators’ responsibilities to deliver value for money for the health service as a whole (Moreira 2011: 1338 ). As Abraham ( 1995 ) and Davies and Abraham ( 2013 ) have shown, pharmaceutical companies influence regulatory processes affecting their products, including via funding clinical trials and working with regulators to speed up the approvals process. However, research has also shown

in Personalised cancer medicine
Anne Kerr, Choon Key Chekar, Emily Ross, Julia Swallow, and Sarah Cunningham-Burley

, which lobbied regulators and government to improve access, including supporting a 2008 court case by a group of ‘Herceptin Heroes’ which resulted in the regulator having to conduct further consultation to formulate policy. Through these practices the side-effects of drugs such as Herceptin, which include, among others, cardiac toxicity, are downplayed in favour of its promise of longer lives for patients. As with Gleevec, new multinational consortia were developed to establish viable trials for the drug. HERA (HERceptin Adjuvant) was initially run

in Personalised cancer medicine
Open Access (free)
Purchasing, consumption and innovation
Ken Green, Barbara Morton, and Steve New

been established for the marketing–R&D interchange, whether about environmental issues or about other issues (price, quality, etc.). Thirdly, there is the ability of any R&D department to respond to requests to attend to environmental issues. As we have already mentioned, the examples we have examined have shown that the environmental signals that the organisations receive often Greening organisations 145 come from customers or regulators. Even so, environmental signals from regulators are often the result of legislation affecting customers as users; only a few

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
Naomi Chambers and Jeremy Taylor

people's experiences of care? The stories we share in this book present a mix of both good and bad experiences of care. Official data and assessments paint a similar, varied picture. The annual State of Care report published by the health and care regulator the Care Quality Commission is a case in point. In its report for 2019/2020 (CQC, 2020a ) the Care Quality Commission assesses most of the care it sees in England as of good quality but also highlights a number of continuing concerns that predate the COVID-19 pandemic: The

in Organising care around patients
Open Access (free)
Which technologies are improved, and how?
Roslyn Kerr

the technological innovations utilised in motor sport, including ‘the teams, their sponsors, the television companies, and the regulators of motor sport’. For example, they describe how the sponsors are torn by the desire to make the sport more exciting while also keeping it safe. The pressure to keep sponsors happy results in those involved directly in the sport feeling that it is external bodies without any technical knowledge of motor sport who end up directing the trajectory of innovations. For example, it is

in Sport and technology
The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

place for EU-funded research, including that we will not fund the destruction of embryos. (European Commission 2014) The scientific community, the regulators and civil society organisations may have been caught unprepared for ‘cloning’, but it is likely that the farraginous regulatory systems in place, both nationally and internationally, often guided by ideologies and dogmas rather than by dispassionate reasoning, may have set back scientific advancement and research. The therapeutic potentials of human cloning are well known, and were already disseminated soon

in The freedom of scientific research
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

: 10, emphasis in original). In devising their own pesticide use plan, the Sherman Hollow management team consulted a number of authorities, including a hydrogeologist, toxicologist, agronomist, and environmental scientists. In a sign of how regulators would come to see pesticide usage on golf courses, the EPA was also enlisted to help with the operation of IPM (Grant, 1987a ). Apart from specific initiatives of this kind, the rise of IPM was accompanied by – and perhaps itself inspired

in The greening of golf
Open Access (free)
Environmental managerialism and golf’s conspicuous exemption
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act becomes relevant. The basic principle by which provinces and municipalities must abide is that legislation may further restrict, but never relax, the permitted uses of a product according to federal regulators. As Boyd writes, “All provinces have laws governing the sale, use, transportation, storage, and disposal of pesticides, as well as emergencies such as spills” (Boyd, 2003 : 123). He adds that for industrial uses, sellers and applicators are often required to obtain

in The greening of golf
Phil Almond

for mobile investment (Jessop, 2004). Countries – but also cities, subnational regions and, to an extent, supranational trade blocs  – engage in competition to attract private-sector investment. More broadly, policy decisions are inflected by efforts to develop or maintain international or global ‘competitiveness’ (Pedersen, 2010), influenced not only by flows of capital but also by the active agency of transnational regulators. In other words, the contemporary international organisation of production and the nature of state regulation are intricately intertwined

in Making work more equal