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Religion and spirituality in environmental direct action

overlaid by elements of European Paganism as the movement spread to Europe (Niman, 1997). Niman is concerned at the way that the Rainbows ‘have written themselves into Hopi prophecies’ (p. 134), considering this process as tantamount to ‘ethnocide’ (p. 146). By contrast, Taylor argues that this process is unexceptional in religious life: ‘some cross-cultural borrowing, reciprocal influencing and blending is an inevitable aspect of religious life – thus at least some of the hand-wringing over appropriation and syncretic processes is misplaced and over broad’ (1997: 206

in Changing anarchism
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Representations of the house in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke

concern has been evident and the built environment of her more recent poems is also culturally contextualised. Often the building may be a church or convent rather than a house. Throughout Ní Chuilleanáin’s work, religious institutions are seen to offer the security and support more usually associated with the family home and her sense of the religious community is one of female opportunity rather than limitation. ‘In Her Other Ireland’ sees the austerity of religious life bizarrely placed alongside (or within) the world of the seaside fairground, creating two opposing

in Irish literature since 1990
Le Bone Florence of Rome and bourgeois self-making

-till-marriage were conceptually differentiated, as Florence’s story shows. Much of the action consists of a concerted male alliance to put her virginity to the test, and although she spends time in a nunnery, at the end of the poem she is reunited in Rome with her husband, Emere. The reader knows that the religious life is not the goal of Florence’s story – it is not about a consecrated virgin but about the other, temporary, kind. The nunnery is a detour en route to the wedding feast with which the poem ends. So the story focuses on a particular phase in a woman’s life: her

in Pulp fictions of medieval England

right to undertake priestly functions in a ‘Goddess religion’ that ordinarily restricts these functions to women? Should the state compel women members of this religious group to admit maverick, but perfectly sincere, men as priests? It hardly seems fair to let such men, no matter how sincere they may be, impose themselves on the religious life of another group of citizens in this way. But, it might be said, the women worshippers of the ‘Goddess’ do not manifest patriarchal prejudice when they demand the right to exclude men from their priesthood – indeed, they may

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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approach to diocesan reform from his successor, Étienne Le Camus. Scarron turned out to be a far more inconsistent administrator and pastor, often preferring the solitude of his library to the discomforts of synods and visitations, and lacking Le Camus’s enviable energy and organisational acumen.11 These recent works raise important questions of methodology and interpretation for any study of the French episcopate. Their dynamic amalgamation of popular religion with episcopal actions has placed bishops rather closer to the centre of religious life. Equally, they have

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’

exploratory and open to further amplification by successive generations. Durkheim and Mauss worked at the interstices of concepts of civilisations as, first, spatial wholes and, second, as constituted in interaction. The imprecise, compact and ambiguous nature of their perspective puts them on the cusp of the two approaches I have posited here. Their early sketches of the characteristics of civilisations coincided with Durkheim’s survey of ethnographies of non-​stratified cultures in The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. They brought recognition of the complexity of

in Debating civilisations
The idioms and risks of defiance in the trial of Margaretha Horn, 1652

, many farms and fields had been destroyed or fallen into disrepair and disuse, many village churches had been damaged, formal religious life in the hinterland had all but collapsed, and all citizens and subjects had been squeezed to the point of financial exhaustion for the contributions demanded by the frequently changing resident armies. The scale of damage was reflected in the length of time it took to rectify: in some rural areas sixty years passed before pre-war levels of productivity were again attained.75 Overall this terrible experience may have made the

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism

, which contextualises the origins of the Peace Society, see J. E. Cookson, The Friends of Peace: Anti-war Liberalism in England, 1793–1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 7 Brock, Nonsectarian Pacifism, pp. 21–3; W. H. van der Linden, The International Peace Movement, 1815–1874 (Amsterdam: Tilleul Publications, 1987), pp. 4, 7–8. 8 Alan D. Gilbert, Religion and Society in Industrial England: Church, Chapel and Social Change, 1740–1914 (London: Longman, 1976), pp. 34, 37–9, 63, 205. See also David Hempton, ‘Religious life in industrial Britain’, in

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’

streams of development, such as: independent arts initiatives by local residents; arts in adult education; outreach work by professional companies; the arts aspects of social and religious life; the arts of cultural minorities; initiatives by arts entrepreneurs; arts initiatives by public authorities, including health, education, social services, prisons. (CDF, 1992: 87) With the development of ‘Arts in the Community’, community arts has become institutionalised, controlled via funding organisations, government, arts boards, local authorities, health authorities

in Changing anarchism
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Nuns’ narratives in early modern Venice

from the convent parlours were the most common penalties. Given that Laura’s guilt was not in dispute, honesty was a tactic which any defence lawyer might have counselled. That said, honesty is not a neutral commodity, and Laura’s confessions are by no means free from artifice. The details which she supplied about her childhood and her unwilling entry to the religious life were clearly designed to win the sympathy of the court. They served to mitigate her errors, placing them in the context of a social problem which was all too familiar to the authorities in Venice

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700